Dermal enhancement: bacterial products on intact skin induce and augment organ-specific autoimmune disease

Riminton, D. Sean, Kandasamy, Rama, Dravec, Danijela, Basten, Antony, and Baxter, Alan G. (2004) Dermal enhancement: bacterial products on intact skin induce and augment organ-specific autoimmune disease. Journal of Immunology, 172 (1). pp. 302-309.

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The skin is both an essential barrier for host defense and an important organ of immunity. In this study, we show that the application of cholera toxin to intact mouse skin induces and enhances autoimmune diseases affecting organs at distant anatomic sites, whereas its administration by the mucosal route has been reported to have the opposite effect. First, the CNS autoantigen myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35–55, when applied repeatedly with cholera toxin to the intact skin of healthy C57BL/6 mice, induced relapsing paralysis with demyelinating immunopathologic features similar to multiple sclerosis. Second, the application of cholera toxin in the absence of autoantigen exacerbated the severity of conventional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in CFA. Third, the application of cholera toxin to the intact skin of NOD/Lt mice, with or without insulin B peptide 9–23, exacerbated insulitis and T lymphocyte-derived IFN-gamma and IL-4 production in the islets of Langerhans, resulting in an increased incidence and rate of onset of autoimmune diabetes. The data presented in this study highlight the different outcomes of adjuvant administration by different routes. Because dermal application of cholera toxin, and other bacterial products with similar adjuvant activities, is being developed as a clinical vaccination strategy, these data raise the possibility that it could precipitate autoimmune disease in genetically susceptible humans.

Item ID: 6606
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1550-6606
Keywords: autoimmune disease; dermal; vaccination
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Date Deposited: 11 Feb 2010 00:39
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1107 Immunology > 110703 Autoimmunity @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920108 Immune System and Allergy @ 100%
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