The effects of shockwave therapy on musculoskeletal conditions based on changes in imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression

Al-Abbad, Hani, Allen, Sophie, Morris, Susan, Reznik, Jackie, Biros, Erik, Paulik, Bruce, Wright, Anthony, and UNSPECIFIED (2020) The effects of shockwave therapy on musculoskeletal conditions based on changes in imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis with meta-regression. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 21. 275.

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Abstract

Background

Shockwave therapy (SWT) is a commonly used intervention for a number of musculoskeletal conditions with varying clinical outcomes. However, the capacity of SWT to influence pathophysiological processes and the morphology of affected tissues remains unclear. The objective of the current review is to evaluate changes in imaging outcomes of musculoskeletal conditions following SWT.

Methods

A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL and SportDiscus was conducted from inception to October 2018. Prospective clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of SWT based on changes in imaging outcomes were eligible for inclusion. Articles were evaluated independently for risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias list and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies. Random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression with a priori determined covariates was conducted for each condition to determine potential predictors of SWT effects.

Results

Sixty-three studies were included, with data from 27 studies available for effect size pooling. Meta-analyses and meta-regression on imaging outcomes were performed for rotator cuff calcific tendinitis (n = 11), plantar fasciitis (n = 7) and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (n = 9). There was an overall reduction in the size of measured lesion following SWT (MD 8.44 mm (95%CI 4.30, 12.57), p < 0.001) for calcium deposit diameter, (MD 0.92 mm (95%CI 0.03, 1.81), p = 0.04) for plantar fascia thickness and (MD 4.84% (95%CI -0.06, 9.75), p = 0.05) for lesion size in femoral head osteonecrosis. Meta-regression showed no influence of SWT dosage parameters, however, baseline lesion size was an independent predictor for changes in imaging outcomes.

Conclusions

SWT altered the morphology of musculoskeletal conditions, potentially reflecting changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. The parameters of SWT dosage are not significant predictors of changes in imaging outcomes. Lack of adequate reporting of imaging outcomes limited the conclusions that could be drawn from the current review. Registration number: PROSPERO CRD42018091140.

Item ID: 65814
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1471-2474
Keywords: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy, Imaging, Systematic review, Meta-analysis
Copyright Information: © The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visithttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Date Deposited: 03 Feb 2021 06:15
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4201 Allied health and rehabilitation science > 420106 Physiotherapy @ 50%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4201 Allied health and rehabilitation science > 420109 Rehabilitation @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920199 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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