Capacity of National Malaria Control Programmes to implement vector surveillance: a global analysis

Russell, Tanya L., Farlow, Robert, Min, Myo, Espino, Effie, Mnzava, Abraham, and Burkot, Thomas R. (2020) Capacity of National Malaria Control Programmes to implement vector surveillance: a global analysis. Malaria Journal, 19. 422.

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Background: Solving the problem of malaria requires a highly skilled workforce with robust infrastructure, financial backing and sound programme management coordinated by a strategic plan. Here, the capacity of National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) was analysed to identify the strengths and weaknesses underpinning the implementation of vector surveillance and control activities by the core elements of programme capacity, being strategic frameworks, financing, human resources, logistics and infrastructure, and information systems.

Results: Across nearly every country surveyed, the vector surveillance programmes were hampered by a lack of capacity and capability. Only 8% of NMCPs reported having sufficient capacity to implement vector surveillance. In contrast, 57%, 56% and 28% of NMCPs had the capacity to implement long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and larval source management (LSM) activities, respectively. Largely underlying this was a lack of up-to-date strategic plans that prioritize vector surveillance and include frameworks for decision-making and action.

Conclusions: Strategic planning and a lack of well-trained entomologists heavily hamper vector surveillance. Countries on the path to elimination generally had more operational/field staff compared to countries at the stage of control, and also were more likely to have an established system for staff training and capacity building. It is unlikely that controlling countries will make significant progress unless huge investments also go towards increasing the number and capacity of programmatic staff.

Item ID: 65146
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-2875
Keywords: Malaria, Anopheles, Vector surveillance, Capacity building, Needs assessment, Logic framework
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Funders: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
Projects and Grants: BMGF Grant no. OPP1174142
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2020 00:27
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420202 Disease surveillance @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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