Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study

James, Spencer L, Castle, Chris D, Dingels, Zachary V, Fox, Jack T, Hamilton, Erin B, Liu, Zichen, Roberts, Nicholas L S, Sylte, Dillon O, Bertolacci, Gregory J, Cunningham, Matthew, Henry, Nathaniel J, LeGrand, Kate E, Abdelalim, Ahmed, Abdollahpour, Ibrahim, Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi, Abedi, Aidin, Abegaz, Kedir Hussein, Abosetugn, Akine Eshete, Abushouk, Abdelrahman I, Adebayo, Oladimeji M, Adsuar, Jose C, Advani, Shailesh M, Agudelo-Botero, Marcela, Ahmad, Tauseef, Ahmed, Muktar Beshir, Ahmed, Rushdia, Eddine Aichour, Miloud Taki, Alahdab, Fares, Alanezi, Fahad Mashhour, Alema, Niguse Meles, Alemu, Biresaw Wassihun, Alghnam, Suliman A, Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir, Ali, Saqib, Alinia, Cyrus, Alipour, Vahid, Aljunid, Syed Mohamed, Almasi-Hashiani, Amir, Almasri, Nihad A, Altirkawi, Khalid, Abdeldayem Amer, Yasser Sami, Andrei, Catalina Liliana, Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza, T Antonio, Carl Abelardo, Anvari, Davood, Yaw Appiah, Seth Christopher, Arabloo, Jalal, Arab-Zozani, Morteza, Arefi, Zohreh, Aremu, Olatunde, Ariani, Filippo, Arora, Amit, Asaad, Malke, Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina, Ayano, Getinet, Ayanore, Martin Amogre, Azarian, Ghasem, Badawi, Alaa, Badiye, Ashish D, Baig, Atif Amin, Bairwa, Mohan, Bakhtiari, Ahad, Balachandran, Arun, Banach, Maciej, Banerjee, Srikanta K, Banik, Palash Chandra, Banstola, Amrit, Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn, Bärnighausen, Till Winfried, Barzegar, Akbar, Bayati, Mohsen, Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad, Bedi, Neeraj, Behzadifar, Masoud, Belete, Habte, Bennett, Derrick A, Bensenor, Isabela M, Berhe, Kidanemaryam, Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth, Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bhat, Anusha Ganapati, Bhattacharyya, Krittika, Bhutta, Zulfiqar A, Bibi, Sadia, Bijani, Ali, Boloor, Archith, Borges, Guilherme, Borschmann, Rohan, Borzì, Antonio Maria, Boufous, Soufiane, Braithwaite, Dejana, Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich, Brugha, Traolach, Budhathoki, Shyam S, Car, Josip, Cárdenas, Rosario, Carvalho, Félix, Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio, Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A, Castelpietra, Giulio, Catalá-López, Ferrán, Cerin, Ester, Chandan, Joht S, Chapman, Jens Robert, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Chattu, Soosanna Kumary, Chatziralli, Irini, Chaudhary, Neha, Cho, Daniel Youngwhan, Choi, Jee-Young J, Kabir Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul, Christopher, Devasahayam J, Chu, Dinh-Toi, Cicuttini, Flavia M, Coelho, João M, Costa, Vera M, Dahlawi, Saad M A, Daryani, Ahmad, Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto, Leo, Diego De, Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen, Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam, Demsie, Desalegn Getnet, Deribe, Kebede, Desai, Rupak, Nasab, Mostafa Dianati, Silva, Diana Dias da, Dibaji Forooshani, Zahra Sadat, Do, Hoa Thi, Doyle, Kerrie E, Driscoll, Tim Robert, Dubljanin, Eleonora, Adema, Bereket Duko, Eagan, Arielle Wilder, Elemineh, Demelash Abewa, El-Jaafary, Shaimaa I, El-Khatib, Ziad, Ellingsen, Christian Lycke, Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed, Eskandarieh, Sharareh, Eyawo, Oghenowede, Faris, Pawan Sirwan, Faro, Andre, Farzadfar, Farshad, Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad, Fernandes, Eduarda, Ferrara, Pietro, Fischer, Florian, Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin, Fomenkov, Artem Alekseevich, Foroutan, Masoud, Francis, Joel Msafiri, Franklin, Richard Charles, Fukumoto, Takeshi, Geberemariyam, Biniyam Sahiledengle, Gebremariam, Hadush, Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork, Gebremeskel, Leake G, Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn, Gebremichael, Berhe, Gedefaw, Getnet Azeze, Geta, Birhanu, Getenet, Agegnehu Bante, Ghafourifard, Mansour, Ghamari, Farhad, Gheshlagh, Reza Ghanei, Gholamian, Asadollah, Gilani, Syed Amir, Gill, Tiffany K, Goudarzian, Amir Hossein, Goulart, Alessandra C, Grada, Ayman, Grivna, Michal, Guimarães, Rafael Alves, Guo, Yuming, Gupta, Gaurav, Haagsma, Juanita A, Hall, Brian James, Hamadeh, Randah R, Hamidi, Samer, Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes, Haro, Josep Maria, Hasanzadeh, Amir, Hassan, Shoaib, Hassanipour, Soheil, Hassankhani, Hadi, Hassen, Hamid Yimam, Havmoeller, Rasmus, Hendrie, Delia, Heydarpour, Fatemeh, Híjar, Martha, Ho, Hung Chak, Hoang, Chi Linh, Hole, Michael K, Holla, Ramesh, Hossain, Naznin, Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi, Hostiuc, Sorin, Hu, Guoqing, Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel, Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen, Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja, Naghibi Irvani, Seyed Sina, Mofizul Islam, M, Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed, Ivers, Rebecca Q, Jahani, Mohammad Ali, Jakovljevic, Mihajlo, Jalilian, Farzad, Jayaraman, Sudha, Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra, Jha, Ravi Prakash, John-Akinola, Yetunde O, Jonas, Jost B, Jones, Kelly M, Joseph, Nitin, Joukar, Farahnaz, Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy, Jungari, Suresh Banayya, Jürisson, Mikk, Kabir, Ali, Kahsay, Amaha, Kalankesh, Leila R, Kalhor, Rohollah, Kamil, Teshome Abegaz, Kanchan, Tanuj, Kapoor, Neeti, Karami, Manoochehr, Kasaeian, Amir, Kassaye, Hagazi Gebremedhin, Kavetskyy, Taras, Kayode, Gbenga A, Keiyoro, Peter Njenga, Kelbore, Abraham Getachew, Khader, Yousef Saleh, Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif, Khalid, Nauman, Khalil, Ibrahim A, Khalilov, Rovshan, Khan, Maseer, Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Khan, Junaid, Khanna, Tripti, 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Seyedeh Zahra, Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard, Maulik, Pallab K, Mehndiratta, Man Mohan, Melketsedik, Zeleke Aschalew, Memiah, Peter T N, Mendoza, Walter, Menezes, Ritesh G, Mengesha, Melkamu Merid, Meretoja, Tuomo J, Meretoja, Atte, Merie, Hayimro Edemealem, Mestrovic, Tomislav, Miazgowski, Bartosz, Miazgowski, Tomasz, Miller, Ted R, Mini, G K, Mirica, Andreea, Mirrakhimov, Erkin M, Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mehdi, Mithra, Prasanna, Moazen, Babak, Moghadaszadeh, Masoud, Mohamadi, Efat, Mohammad, Yousef, Darwesh, Aso Mohammad, Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah, Mohammadpourhodki, Reza, Mohammed, Shafiu, Mohammed, Jemal Abdu, Mohebi, Farnam, Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad A, Molokhia, Mariam, Monasta, Lorenzo, Moodley, Yoshan, Moradi, Masoud, Moradi, Ghobad, Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar, Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah, Morawska, Lidia, Velásquez, Ilais Moreno, Morrison, Shane Douglas, Mossie, Tilahun Belete, Muluneh, Atalay Goshu, Musa, Kamarul Imran, Mustafa, Ghulam, Naderi, Mehdi, Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman, Naik, Gurudatta, Naimzada, Mukhammad David, Najafi, Farid, Nangia, Vinay, Nascimento, Bruno Ramos, Naserbakht, Morteza, Nayak, Vinod, Nazari, Javad, Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith, Negoi, Ionut, Ngunjiri, Josephine W, Nguyen, Trang Huyen, Nguyen, Cuong Tat, Nguyen, Diep Ngoc, Thi Nguyen, Huong Lan, Nikbakhsh, Rajan, Anggraini Ningrum, Dina Nur, Nnaji, Chukwudi A, Ofori-Asenso, Richard, Ogbo, Felix Akpojene, Oghenetega, Onome Bright, Oh, In-Hwan, Olagunju, Andrew T, Olagunju, Tinuke O, Bali, Ahmed Omar, Onwujekwe, Obinna E, Orpana, Heather M, Ota, Erika, Otstavnov, Nikita, Otstavnov, Stanislav S, P A, Mahesh, Padubidri, Jagadish Rao, Pakhale, Smita, Pakshir, Keyvan, Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra, Park, Eun-Kee, Patel, Sangram Kishor, Pathak, Ashish, Pati, Sanghamitra, Paulos, Kebreab, Peden, Amy E., Filipino Pepito, Veincent Christian, Pereira, Jeevan, Phillips, Michael R, Polibin, Roman V, Polinder, Suzanne, Pourmalek, Farshad, Pourshams, Akram, Poustchi, Hossein, Prakash, Swayam, Angga Pribadi, Dimas Ria, Puri, Parul, Syed, Zahiruddin Quazi, Rabiee, Navid, Rabiee, Mohammad, Radfar, Amir, Rafay, Anwar, Rafiee, Ata, Rafiei, Alireza, Rahim, Fakher, Rahimi, Siavash, Rahman, Muhammad Aziz, Rajabpour-Sanati, Ali, Rajati, Fatemeh, Rakovac, Ivo, Rao, Sowmya J, Rashedi, Vahid, Rastogi, Prateek, Rathi, Priya, Rawaf, Salman, Rawal, Lal, Rawassizadeh, Reza, Renjith, Vishnu, Resnikoff, Serge, Rezapour, Aziz, Ribeiro, Ana Isabel, Rickard, Jennifer, Rios González, Carlos Miguel, Roever, Leonardo, Ronfani, Luca, Roshandel, Gholamreza, Saddik, Basema, Safarpour, Hamid, Safdarian, Mahdi, Mohammad Sajadi, S, Salamati, Payman, Rashad Salem, Marwa R, Salem, Hosni, Salz, Inbal, Samy, Abdallah M, Sanabria, Juan, Riera, Lidia Sanchez, Santric Milicevic, Milena M, Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, Sarveazad, Arash, Sathian, Brijesh, Sawhney, Monika, Sayyah, Mehdi, Schwebel, David C, Seedat, Soraya, Senthilkumaran, Subramanian, Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba, Sha, Feng, Shaahmadi, Faramarz, Shahabi, Saeed, Shaikh, Masood Ali, Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran, Sheikh, Aziz, Shigematsu, Mika, Shin, Jae Il, Shiri, Rahman, Siabani, Soraya, Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora, Singh, Jasvinder A, Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Sinha, Dhirendra Narain, Soheili, Amin, Soriano, Joan B, Sorrie, Muluken Bekele, Soyiri, Ireneous N, Stokes, Mark A, Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale, Sykes, Bryan L, Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael, Tabb, Karen M, Taddele, Biruk Wogayehu, Tefera, Yonatal Mesfin, Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash, Tekulu, Gebretsadkan Hintsa, Tesema Tesema, Ayenew Kassie, Tesfay, Berhe Etsay, Thapar, Rekha, Titova, Mariya Vladimirovna, Tlaye, Kenean Getaneh, Tohidinik, Hamid Reza, Topor-Madry, Roman, Tran, Khanh Bao, Tran, Bach Xuan, Tripathy, Jaya Prasad, Tsai, Alexander C, Tsatsakis, Aristidis, Car, Lorainne Tudor, Ullah, Irfan, Ullah, Saif, Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran, Upadhyay, Era, Uthman, Olalekan A, Valdez, Pascual R, Vasankari, Tommi Juhani, Veisani, Yousef, Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy, Violante, Francesco S, Vlassov, Vasily, Waheed, Yasir, Wang, Yuan-Pang, Wiangkham, Taweewat, Wolde, Haileab Fekadu, Woldeyes, Dawit Habte, Wondmeneh, Temesgen Gebeyehu, Wondmieneh, Adam Belay, Wu, Ai-Min, Wyper, Grant M A, Yadav, Rajaram, Yadollahpour, Ali, Yano, Yuichiro, Yaya, Sanni, Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid, Ye, Pengpeng, Yip, Paul, Yisma, Engida, Yonemoto, Naohiro, Yoon, Seok-Jun, Youm, Yoosik, Younis, Mustafa Z, Yousefi, Zabihollah, Yu, Chuanhua, Yu, Yong, Moghadam, Telma Zahirian, Zaidi, Zoubida, Zaman, Sojib Bin, Zamani, Mohammad, Zandian, Hamed, Zarei, Fatemeh, Zhang, Zhi-Jiang, Zhang, Yunquan, Ziapour, Arash, Zodpey, Sanjay, Dandona, Rakhi, Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda, Hay, Simon I, Mokdad, Ali H, Pigott, David M, Reiner, Robert C, and Vos, Theo (2020) Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study. Injury Prevention, 26 (SUPP_1). i125-i153.

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Abstract

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.

Item ID: 65011
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-5785
Keywords: populations, contexts, methodology, descriptive epidemiology, statistical issues
Copyright Information: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Funders: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2020 03:02
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420207 Major global burdens of disease @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920409 Injury Control @ 100%
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