The burden of unintentional drowning: global, regional and national estimates of mortality from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 Study

Franklin, Richard C., Peden, Amy E., Hamilton, Erin B, Bisignano, Catherine, Castle, Chris D, Dingels, Zachary V, Hay, Simon I, Liu, Zichen, Mokdad, Ali H, Roberts, Nicholas L S, Sylte, Dillon O, Vos, Theo, Abady, Gdiom Gebreheat, Abosetugn, Akine Eshete, Ahmed, Rushdia, Alahdab, Fares, Andrei, Catalina Liliana, Antonio, Carl Abelardo T, Arabloo, Jalal, Arba, Aseb Arba Kinfe, Badiye, Ashish D, Bakkannavar, Shankar M, Banach, Maciej, Banik, Palash Chandra, Banstola, Amrit, Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn, Barzegar, Akbar, Bayati, Mohsen, Bhardwaj, Pankaj, Bhaumik, Soumyadeep, Bhutta, Zulfiqar A, Bijani, Ali, Boloor, Archith, Carvalho, Félix, Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir, Chu, Dinh-Toi, Colquhoun, Samantha M, Dagne, Henok, Dagnew, Baye, Dandona, Lalit, Dandona, Rakhi, Daryani, Ahmad, Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda, Dibaji Forooshani, Zahra Sadat, Do, Hoa Thi, Driscoll, Tim Robert, Eagan, Arielle Wilder, El-Khatib, Ziad, Fernandes, Eduarda, Filip, Irina, Fischer, Florian, Gebremichael, Berhe, Gupta, Gaurav, Haagsma, Juanita A, Hassan, Shoaib, Hendrie, Delia, Hoang, Chi Linh, Hole, Michael K, Holla, Ramesh, Hostiuc, Sorin, Househ, Mowafa, Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen, Inbaraj, Leeberk Raja, Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi, Islam, M Mofizul, Ivers, Rebecca Q, Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra, Joukar, Farahnaz, Kalhor, Rohollah, Kanchan, Tanuj, Kapoor, Neeti, Kasaeian, Amir, Khan, Maseer, Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Khubchandani, Jagdish, Krishan, Kewal, Kumar, G Anil, Lauriola, Paolo, Lopez, Alan D, Madadin, Mohammed, Majdan, Marek, Maled, Venkatesh, Manafi, Navid, Manafi, Ali, McKee, Martin, Meles, Hagazi Gebre, Menezes, Ritesh G, Meretoja, Tuomo J, Miller, Ted R, Mithra, Prasanna, Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah, Mohammadpourhodki, Reza, Mohebi, Farnam, Molokhia, Mariam, Mustafa, Ghulam, Negoi, Ionut, Nguyen, Cuong Tat, Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi, Olagunju, Andrew T, Olagunju, Tinuke O, Padubidri, Jagadish Rao, Pakshir, Keyvan, Pathak, Ashish, Polinder, Suzanne, Pribadi, Dimas Ria Angga, Rabiee, Navid, Radfar, Amir, Rana, Saleem Muhammad, Rickard, Jennifer, Safari, Saeed, Salamati, Payman, Samy, Abdallah M, Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, Schwebel, David C, Senthilkumaran, Subramanian, Shaahmadi, Faramarz, Shaikh, Masood Ali, Shin, Jae Il, Singh, Pankaj Kumar, Soheili, Amin, Stokes, Mark A, Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul, Tarigan, Ingan Ukur, Temsah, Mohamad-Hani, Tesfay, Berhe Etsay, Valdez, Pascual R, Veisani, Yousef, Ye, Pengpeng, Yonemoto, Naohiro, Yu, Chuanhua, Yusefzadeh, Hasan, Zaman, Sojib Bin, Zhang, Zhi-Jiang, and James, Spencer L (2020) The burden of unintentional drowning: global, regional and national estimates of mortality from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 Study. Injury Prevention, 26 (SUPP_1). i83-i95.

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Abstract

Background: Drowning is a leading cause of injury-related mortality globally. Unintentional drowning (International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 codes W65-74 and ICD9 E910) is one of the 30 mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive causes of injury-related mortality in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. This study’s objective is to describe unintentional drowning using GBD estimates from 1990 to 2017.

Methods: Unintentional drowning from GBD 2017 was estimated for cause-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs), age, sex, country, region, Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile, and trends from 1990 to 2017. GBD 2017 used standard GBD methods for estimating mortality from drowning.

Results: Globally, unintentional drowning mortality decreased by 44.5% between 1990 and 2017, from 531 956 (uncertainty interval (UI): 484 107 to 572 854) to 295 210 (284 493 to 306 187) deaths. Global age-standardised mortality rates decreased 57.4%, from 9.3 (8.5 to 10.0) in 1990 to 4.0 (3.8 to 4.1) per 100 000 per annum in 2017. Unintentional drowning-associated mortality was generally higher in children, males and in low-SDI to middle-SDI countries. China, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh accounted for 51.2% of all drowning deaths in 2017. Oceania was the region with the highest rate of age-standardised YLLs in 2017, with 45 434 (40 850 to 50 539) YLLs per 100 000 across both sexes.

Conclusions: There has been a decline in global drowning rates. This study shows that the decline was not consistent across countries. The results reinforce the need for continued and improved policy, prevention and research efforts, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries.

Item ID: 64973
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-5785
Keywords: drowning, burden of disease, global
Copyright Information: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Funders: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), Royal Life Saving Society – Australia
Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2020 04:30
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420210 Social epidemiology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920409 Injury Control @ 100%
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