When worlds collide: where and when anophelines and humans interact

Pollard, Edgar John Maeniuta (2019) When worlds collide: where and when anophelines and humans interact. PhD thesis, James Cook University.

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View at Publisher Website: https://doi.org/10.25903/5e7947004d999
 
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Abstract

Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes and kills almost half a million people each year. While substantial gains have been made in combatting the disease, progress has stalled partly because of changes in mosquito behaviour, resistance to the insecticides in vector-control measures, drug resistance in the parasites, inadequate financing, a lack of political support as well as a host of other factors. These vector control measures have been successful since the 1990s in reducing malaria-related mortality; however, their efficacy is now waning. New tools are needed to complement the current vector control measures and combat outdoor biting; however, to develop and roll out new tools the behaviour of mosquitoes and humans needs to be better understood.

Malaria is an endemic problem in the Solomon Islands and is primarily transmitted by Anopheles farauti. This study examined the behaviour of An. farauti mosquitoes and humans in the Solomon Island and Austrialia in four distinct components. The first component optimized the barrier screen method for mosquito collections. The second component used these optimized barrier screens to collect and record mosquito distributions in Solomon Island villages. The third component used movement diaries to record human behaviour in Solomon Island villagers. The fourth component explored serological techniques to measure mosquito-human interactions.

The characteristics of barrier screens (colour, weight and design) and frequency of inspection were found to be important determinants affecting the collection efficiency. The results for optimising barrier screens indicated that black coloured, medium weighted shade cloth maximized An. farauti collection numbers including the first ever-recorded distributions of sugar-fed and male An. farauti. Anopheles farauti activity including biting in Solomon Islands villages peaked during 7-8pm. During this period of peak biting the majority of people were outdoors in the peri-domestic area, predominantly on the veranda or in adjacent kitchen buildings. Therefore, greatest interactions between the human and the malaria vector populations and therefore the most likely area of malaria transmission is in the early evening in this peri-domestic space. To better evaluate the risk associated with humans being bitten by An. farauti the serological response of humans to a mosquito salivary gland antigen was investigated in the Solomon Islands. While of insufficient sensitivity to guide programs when using the gSG6 antigen, this approach holds great promise and might be improved by using antigens from An. farauti in the assay.

The peri-domestic space is identified as the area of greatest risk but also of greatest potential for vector control. The implications of this study indicate that the current vector control measure (insecticide treated nets) are not being used during the peak biting period. Focusing mosquito control on the peridomestic spaces in villages is needs as this is where the highest transmission potential exists. New tools targeting this area are needed to minimize interactions between the mosquito and human populations.

Item ID: 62622
Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: mosquitoes, malaria, Anopheles farauti, barrier screen, mosquito movement, Solomon Islands, gSG6, Human biting rate, saliva antigens
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Copyright Information: Copyright © 2019 Edgar John Maeniuta Pollard.
Additional Information:

Three publications arising from this thesis are stored in ResearchOnline@JCU, at the time of processing. Please see the Related URLs field. The publications are:

Pollard, Edgar J.M., Russell, Tanya L., and Burkot, Thomas R. (2019) Maximising mosquito collections from barrier screens: the impacts of physical design and operation parameters. Parasites & Vectors, 12. 31.

Pollard, Edgar J.M., Russell, Tanya L., Apairamo, Allan, and Burkot, Thomas R. (2019) Unique fine scale village spatial-temporal distributions of Anopheles farauti differ by physiological state and sex. Parasites & Vectors, 12. 558.

Pollard, Edgar J.M., Patterson, Catriona, Russell, Tanya L., Apairamo, Alan, Oscar, Jance, Arcà, Bruno, Drakeley, Chris, and Burkot, Thomas R. (2019) Human exposure to Anopheles farauti bites in the Solomon Islands is not associated with IgG antibody response to the gSG6 salivary protein of Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal, 18. 334.

Date Deposited: 24 Mar 2020 00:10
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060207 Population Ecology @ 50%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111715 Pacific Peoples Health @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920404 Disease Distribution and Transmission (incl. Surveillance and Response) @ 40%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960405 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species at Regional or Larger Scales @ 30%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 30%
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