Defining the larval habitat: abiotic and biotic parameters associated with Anopheles farauti productivity

McLaughlin, Kimberley, Burkot, Thomas R., Oscar, Jance, Beebe, Nigel W., and Russell, Tanya L. (2019) Defining the larval habitat: abiotic and biotic parameters associated with Anopheles farauti productivity. Malaria Journal, 18. 416.

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Abstract

Background: In the Solomon Island, the dominant malaria vector, Anopheles farauti, is highly anthropophagic and increasingly exophilic and early biting. While long-lasting insecticide-treated nets remain efective against An. farauti, supplemental vector control strategies will be needed to achieve malaria elimination. Presently, the only World Health Organization recommended supplemental vector control strategy is larval source management (LSM). Efective targeted larval source management requires understanding the associations between abiotic, chemical and biological parameters of larval habitats with the presence or density of vector larvae.

Methods: Potential and actual An. farauti larval habitats were characterized for presence and density of larvae and associated abiotic, chemical and biological parameters.

Results: A third of all sampled potential habitats harboured An. farauti larvae with 80% of An. farauti positive habitats being in three habitat classifcations (swamps/lagoons, transient pools and man-made holes). Large swamps were the most abundant positive habitats surveyed (43% of all An. farauti positive habitats). Habitats with An. farauti larvae were signifcantly associated with abiotic (pH, nitrate, ammonia and phosphate concentrations and elevated temperature) and biotic (predators) parameters.

Conclusion: Large swamps and lagoons are the largest and most abundant An. farauti habitats in the Solomon Islands. Positive habitats were more frequently associated with the presence of predators (vertebrates and invertebrates) and higher water temperatures. Cohabitation with predators is indicative of a complex habitat ecosystem and raises questions about the potential of biological control as an efective control strategy. Increased presence of An. farauti with higher water temperature suggests a potential explanation for the coastal distribution of this species which is not found inland at elevated altitudes where temperatures would be cooler.

Item ID: 62243
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-2875
Keywords: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles lungae, Malaria, Receptivity, Elimination, Density, Wing length, Solomon Islands
Copyright Information: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat ivecommons .org/licen ses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creat iveco mmons .org/publi cdoma in/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Funders: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), National Institutes of Health for the International Center of Excellence in Malaria Research in the Southwest Pacific, James Cook University
Projects and Grants: BMGF Grant No. 45114
Research Data: http://dx.doi.org/10.25903/5d3fd8a0a957c
Date Deposited: 11 Feb 2020 02:38
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0602 Ecology > 060204 Freshwater Ecology @ 33%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0608 Zoology > 060808 Invertebrate Biology @ 33%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110309 Infectious Diseases @ 34%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 50%
92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920209 Mental Health Services @ 50%
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