A phasor measurement unit algorithm using IIR filters for FPGA implementation

Kikkert, Cornelis Jan (2019) A phasor measurement unit algorithm using IIR filters for FPGA implementation. Electronics, 8 (12). 1523.

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Abstract

Phasor measurement units (PMU) are increasingly used in electrical power transmission networks, to maintain stability and protect the network. PMUs accurately measure voltage, phase, frequency, and rate of change of frequency (ROCOF). For reliability, it is desirable to implement a PMU using an FPGA. This paper describes a novel algorithm, suited to implementation in an FPGA and based on a simple PMU block diagram. A description of its realization using low hardware complexity infinite impulse response (IIR) filters is given. The IEC/IEEE standard 60255-118-1:2018 Part 118-1: Synchrophasor measurements for power systems, describes “reference” Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters for implementing PMU hardware. At the 10 kHz sampling frequency used for our implementation, each “reference” FIR filter requires 100 multipliers, while an 8th order IIR filter only requires 12 multipliers. This paper compares the performance of different order IIR filter-based PMUs with the performance of the same PMU algorithm using the IEC/IEEE FIR reference filter. The IIR-based PMU easily satisfies all the requirements of IEC/IEEE standard and has a much better out of band signal rejection performance than a FIR-based PMU. Steady state errors for a rated voltage ± 10% and a rated frequency ± 5 Hz are < 0.000001% for total vector error (TVE) and < 1 µHz for frequency, with a latency of two mains cycles.

Item ID: 61925
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2079-9292
Keywords: IIR filter, IIR group delay, IIR step response, M class, Measuring relay, P class, Phasor measurement unit, PMU, Power protection relay, Synchrophasor, Synchrophasor measurement
Copyright Information: © 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open accessarticle distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Funders: none
Projects and Grants: none
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2020 23:20
FoR Codes: 09 ENGINEERING > 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering > 090607 Power and Energy Systems Engineering (excl Renewable Power) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 85 ENERGY > 8506 Energy Storage, Distribution and Supply > 850604 Energy Transmission and Distribution (excl. Hydrogen) @ 100%
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