Two distinct gonorrhea trends and risk factors among women in Australia

Whitford, Kate, Callander, Denton, Smith, Lucy Watchins, Guy, Rebecca, Kong, Marlene, Ward, James, Donovan, Basil, McManus, Hamish, Bell, Stephen, Mcgregor, Skye, Menon, Arun, Russell, Darren, O'Connor, Catherine C., and ACCESS Collaboration, (2020) Two distinct gonorrhea trends and risk factors among women in Australia. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 47 (1). pp. 34-40.

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Abstract

Background: In recent years, gonorrhea notifications have increased in women in Australia and other countries. We measured trends over time and risk factors among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ("Aboriginal") and non-Aboriginal women.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 41 sexual health clinics. Gonorrhea positivity at each patient's first visit (first-test positivity) during the period 2009 to 2016 was calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed risk factors for first-test positivity in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women.

Results: Gonorrhea positivity decreased among Aboriginal women (7.1% in 2009 to 5.2% in 2016, P < 0.001) and increased among non-Aboriginal women (0.6%-2.9%, P < 0.001). Among Aboriginal women, first-test positivity was independently associated with living in a regional or remote area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.52-7.31; P < 0.01) and chlamydia infection (aOR, 4.20; 95% CI,3.22-5.47; P < 0.01). Among non-Aboriginal women, first-test positivity was independently associated with greater socioeconomic disadvantage (second quartile: aOR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.31-2.16; P < 0.01]; third quartile: aOR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.25-1.89; P < 0.01]) compared with least disadvantaged quartile: recent sex work (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.37-2.08; P < 0.01), recent injecting drug use (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.34-2.57; P < 0.01), and chlamydia infection (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.90-2.91; P < 0.01). For non-Aboriginal women, being aged 16 to 19 years (aOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.80; P < 0.01) compared with those >= 30 years was a protective factor.

Conclusions: These findings highlight 2 different epidemics and risk factors for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women, which can inform appropriate health promotion and clinical strategies.

Item ID: 61420
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1537-4521
Copyright Information: © 2019 by the American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
Funders: Australian Department of Health (DoH)
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2020 07:53
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3202 Clinical sciences > 320227 Venereology @ 100%
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