Dengue fever outbreaks in Eritrea, 2005-2015: a case for strengthening surveillance, control and reporting

Usman, Abdulmumini, Ball, Jacob D., Rojas, Diana Patricia, Berhane, Araia, Ghebrat, Yohannes, Mebrahtu, Goitom, Gebresellasie, Azmera, Zehaie, Assefash, Mufunda, Jacob, Liseth, Olivia, Haque, Ubydul, and Chanda, Emmanuel (2016) Dengue fever outbreaks in Eritrea, 2005-2015: a case for strengthening surveillance, control and reporting. Global Health Research and Policy, 1. 17.

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BACKGROUND: The geographic distribution and burden of dengue is increasing globally. This study aims to evaluate dengue outbreaks and to substantiate the need for strengthened surveillance, reporting and control in Eritrea.

METHODS: Data from two cross-sectional dengue epidemic investigations in 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. Samples were tested for dengue virus-specific IgM and IgG antibodies using capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Dengue vectors' breeding attributes were characterized and epidemic risk indices determined. National routine surveillance weekly reports from 2005 to the second quarter of 2015 were analyzed for spatiotemporal trends.

RESULTS: Dengue outbreaks increased in Eritrea from 2005 to 2015 with clinical presentation varying markedly among patients. The house and container indices for Aedes aegypti were 40 and 39.6 % respectively, with containers having A. aeqypti varying significantly (P < 0.04). Serum from 33.3 % (n = 15) and 88 % (n = 26) of clinical dengue cases in Aroget sub-Zoba (district) of Gash Barka Zoba (region) contained anti-DENV IgM antibody in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The national surveillance data from 2005 to 2015 indicate an overall spatiotemporal increase of dengue fever.

CONCLUSIONS: The increase in dengue outbreaks has been confirmed in Eritrea and necessitates strengthening of surveillance and health worker and laboratory capacity, as well as targeted vector control interventions.

Item ID: 60758
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2397-0642
Keywords: Capacity building; Dengue fever; Eritrea; Surveillance; Vector control
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Copyright Information: © The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link tothe Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Funders: University of Florida (UF), Fulbright Program, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Education (ASD/R&E)
Projects and Grants: Fulbright - Colciencias Doctoral scholarship, ASD/R&E The SMART Scholarship Program N00244-09-1-0081
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2019 04:32
FoR Codes: 42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4202 Epidemiology > 420202 Disease surveillance @ 50%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4203 Health services and systems > 420310 Health surveillance @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920404 Disease Distribution and Transmission (incl. Surveillance and Response) @ 100%
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