Investigation of potential environmental reservoirs of mycobacterium ulcerans in North Queensland

Singh, Avishek (2019) Investigation of potential environmental reservoirs of mycobacterium ulcerans in North Queensland. Masters (Research) thesis, James Cook University.

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View at Publisher Website: https://doi.org/10.25903/5d880fb4895c0
 
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Abstract

Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU). It is a geographically restricted neglected tropical disease characterized by extensive and painless necrosis of the skin and soft tissue with formation of large ulcers, usually on the extremities. This disease has been reported in 33 countries worldwide including Australia. In Australia, BU has been reported in coastal Victoria and the Mossman-Daintree area of north Queensland. The mode of transmission and potential environmental reservoir of the organism causing this disease is not well understood. It appears likely that these factors vary in different geographical locations and epidemiological settings. This dissertation aims to investigate the potential reservoirs of M. ulcerans in the BU endemic area of north Queensland, Australia.

In Chapter 2, a systematic review is presented to describe what is known of potential animal reservoirs of M. ulcerans in regions throughout the world. The review was conducted using MEDLINE and INFORMIT databases to aggregate published data on this topic. Non-human cases of BU were found only in Australia and small native mammals were identified as potential reservoirs of the infection.

Chapter 3 describes the geospatial analysis of cases of BU reported between 2009 and 2018, in an endemic area of North Queensland, Australia, using ArcMap 10.4.1 software. Hot-spot analysis did not find any statistically significant cluster of cases within the endemic areas. Additionally, an association between the amount of rainfall and month of diagnosis of BU cases was described, supporting other observations about the average incubation period of this disease.

Chapter 4 and 5 detail the survey of local fauna from the same endemic area of north Queensland, Australia, for the presence of M. ulcerans. Mosquito and animal traps were set up at endemic sites throughout the study period and mosquitoes and animal faecal samples were collected and tested for the presence of M. ulcerans DNA. DNA from M. ulcerans was detected from two bandicoot scat samples and one mosquito pool. These samples were collected from sites in close proximity to human cases of BU.

Chapter 6 describes a blood feeding experiment to investigate the role of mosquitoes in transmission of M. ulcerans. Batches of mosquitoes were fed with defibrinated sheep blood containing heat-killed M. ulcerans. DNA extracted from heads, abdomen and legs of mosquitoes was tested for the presence of M. ulcerans DNA. DNA from M. ulcerans was detected from heads of mosquitoes and pools of whole mosquitoes, providing supportive evidence for the role of mosquitoes as a mechanical vector in the transmission of M. ulcerans.

Item ID: 60392
Item Type: Thesis (Masters (Research))
Keywords: Australia, Mycobacterium ulcerans, native mammals, northern Queensland, mosquitoes, march flies, infectious diseases
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Copyright Information: Copyright © 2019 Avishek Singh.
Additional Information:

Three publications arising from this thesis are available from the Related URLs field. The publications are:

Chapter 2: Singh, Avishek, McBride, William John Hannah, Govan, Brenda, and Pearson, Mark (2018) Potential animal reservoir of Mycobacterium ulcerans: a systematic review. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3 (2). 56.

Chapter 4: Singh, Avishek, McBride, William John Hannan, Govan, Brenda, Pearson, Mark, and Ritchie, Scott A. (2019) A survey on Mycobacterium ulcerans in mosquitoes and march flies captured from endemic areas of northern Queensland, Australia. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 13 (2). e0006745.

Chapter 5: Singh, Avishek, McBride, John Hannan William, Govan, Brenda, and Pearson, Mark (2019) Survey of local fauna from endemic areas of northern Queensland, Australia for the presence of Mycobacterium ulcerans. International Journal Of Mycobacteriology, 8 (1). pp. 48-52.

Date Deposited: 23 Sep 2019 02:46
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110309 Infectious Diseases @ 50%
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0605 Microbiology > 060502 Infectious Agents @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 50%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920120 Zoonoses @ 30%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920117 Skin and Related Disorders @ 20%
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