Variability of allergens in commercial fish extracts for skin prick testing

Ruethers, Thimo, Taki, Aya C., Nugraha, Roni, Cao, Truc T., Koeberl, Martina, Kannath, Sandip D., Williamson, Nicholas A., O'Callaghan, Sean, Nie, Shuai, Mehr, Sam S., Cannpbell, Dianne E., and Lopata, Andreas L. (2019) Variability of allergens in commercial fish extracts for skin prick testing. Allergy, 74 (7). pp. 1352-1363.

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Abstract

Background Commercial allergen extracts for allergy skin prick testing (SPT) are widely used for diagnosing fish allergy. However, there is currently no regulatory requirement for standardization of protein and allergen content, potentially impacting the diagnostic reliability of SPTs. We therefore sought to analyse commercial fish extracts for the presence and concentration of fish proteins and in vitro IgE reactivity using serum from fish-allergic patients. Methods Twenty-six commercial fish extracts from five different manufacturers were examined. The protein concentrations were determined, protein compositions analysed by mass spectrometry, followed by SDS-PAGE and subsequent immunoblotting with antibodies detecting 4 fish allergens (parvalbumin, tropomyosin, aldolase and collagen). IgE-reactive proteins were identified using serum from 16 children with confirmed IgE-mediated fish allergy, with focus on cod, tuna and salmon extracts. Results The total protein, allergen concentration and IgE reactivity of the commercial extracts varied over 10-fold between different manufacturers and fish species. The major fish allergen parvalbumin was not detected by immunoblotting in 6/26 extracts. In 7/12 extracts, five known fish allergens were detected by mass spectrometry. For cod and tuna, almost 70% of patients demonstrated the strongest IgE reactivity to collagen, tropomyosin, aldolase A or beta-enolase but not parvalbumin. Conclusions Commercial fish extracts often contain insufficient amounts of important allergens including parvalbumin and collagen, resulting in low IgE reactivity. A comprehensive proteomic approach for the evaluation of SPT extracts for their utility in allergy diagnostics is presented. There is an urgent need for standardized allergen extracts, which will improve the diagnosis and management of fish allergy.

Item ID: 60107
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1398-9995
Keywords: allergy diagnostics, fish allergy, IgE reactivity, parvalbumin, skin prick test
Copyright Information: © 2019 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC), Peter Doherty Institute (PDI)
Projects and Grants: NHMRC APP1086656, PDI GNT1124143
Date Deposited: 21 Aug 2019 07:41
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1107 Immunology > 110701 Allergy @ 50%
10 TECHNOLOGY > 1004 Medical Biotechnology > 100402 Medical Biotechnology Diagnostics (incl Biosensors) @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920108 Immune System and Allergy @ 60%
92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920203 Diagnostic Methods @ 40%
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