The effects of continued smoking in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Smith, Justin, Nastasi, Domenico, Tso, Reece, Vangaveti, Venkat, Renison, Bronia, and Chilkuri, Madhavi (2019) The effects of continued smoking in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Radiotherapy and Oncology, 135. pp. 51-57.

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Abstract

Purpose: To determine the effects of continued smoking in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy on overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), quality of life (QoL) and acute and late toxicities.

Methods: Articles from January 1990 to August 14, 2018 were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and AUSThealth. Articles were included if majority of patients were treated with radiotherapy and smokers were defined as those who continued to smoke during or after radiotherapy. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment was performed by three independent co-authors using summary data of original studies. A meta-analysis using a random effects model was conducted for OS and LRC. In addition, a qualitative synthesis was performed for toxicities and quality of life as only a limited number of articles were available.

Results: The initial search identified 2217 studies, with 24 articles comprising 6332 patients eligible for inclusion. Analysis demonstrated that continued smoking was associated with approximately two times the risk of mortality (RR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.55-2.21, p < 0.0001, I² = 43%) in HNC patients. Similarly, the risk of locoregional failure was more than two times greater in HNC patients who continued smoking (RR = 2.24, CI 1.42-3.52, p = 0.0005, I² = 64%). The qualitative synthesis indicates that continued smoking may contribute to an elevated incidence of late but not acute toxicities.

Conclusions: This review provides evidence that continued smoking is associated with a lower OS and LRC and a higher incidence of late toxicities. Therefore, clinicians should strongly encourage smoking cessation amongst all head and neck cancer patients.

Item ID: 60003
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1879-0887
Keywords: radiotherapy, head and neck neoplasms, smoking cessation, survival, recurrence, quality of life
Copyright Information: © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2019 07:42
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis > 111208 Radiation Therapy @ 100%
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