Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in northwest Ethiopia: a case-control study

Alene, Kefyalew Addis, Viney, Kerri, McBryde, Emma S., Gray, Darren J., Melku, Mulugeta, and Clements, Archie C.A. (2019) Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in northwest Ethiopia: a case-control study. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 66 (4). pp. 1611-1618.

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Abstract

Ethiopia is one of 30-high burden multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) countries globally. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with MDR-TB and to investigate risk factors for MDR-TB relative to having drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), in northwest Ethiopia. A hospital-based, unmatched case-control study was conducted. Cases were all MDR-TB patients (i.e., resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid) who were confirmed by culture and drug-susceptibility testing whilst enrolled on treatment at Gondar University Hospital. Controls were all drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) patients who were confirmed by Gene Xpert MTB/RIF at Gondar University Hospital. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used for comparisons, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to measure the strength of association between the dependent and independent variables. A total of 452 patients (242 MDR-TB and 210 DS-TB) were included in this study. The mean age of the study participants was 33 years (SD +/- 14 years). Approximately one-fifth (78, 17%) of all study participants were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive; 21% (51) of cases and 13% (27) of controls. Risk factors associated with MDR-TB were a history of previous TB treatment (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 83.8; 95% CI: 40.7, 172.5), low educational status (AOR: 5.32; 95% CI: 1.43, 19.81); and ages less than 20 years (AOR: 9.01; 95% CI: 2.30, 35.25) and 21-30 years (AOR: 2.61; 95% CI: 1.02, 6.64). HIV infection was also significantly associated with MDR-TB among new TB patients (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 1.17, 26.20). This study shows that clinical and demographic features can be used to indicate higher risks of drug resistance in this setting.

Item ID: 59968
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1865-1682
Keywords: Ethiopia, MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant, tuberculosis
Copyright Information: © 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council
Projects and Grants: Sidney Sax Early Career Fellowship from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, GNT1121611
Date Deposited: 07 Aug 2019 07:43
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110309 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
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