A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for and incidence of 30-day readmission after revascularization for peripheral artery disease

Smith, Samuel L., Matthews, Evan O., Moxon, Joseph V., and Golledge, Jonathan (2019) A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for and incidence of 30-day readmission after revascularization for peripheral artery disease. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 70 (3). pp. 996-1006.

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Readmission to the hospital after revascularization for peripheral artery disease (PAD) is frequently reported. No consensus exists as to the exact frequency and risk factors for readmission. This review aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors for 30-day readmission after revascularization for PAD.


PubMed/Medline (Ovid), Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were searched systematically from inception until May 20, 2018. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included patients with diagnosed PAD undergoing revascularization and reported the readmission rate and a statistical evaluation of the association of at least one risk factor with readmission. Studies were excluded if data for other procedures could not be distinguished from revascularization. Two authors undertook study selection independently with the final inclusion decision resolved through consensus. The PRISMA and Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines were followed regarding data extraction and quality assessment, which was performed by two authors independently. Data were pooled using a random effects model.


The primary outcome was readmission within 30 days of revascularization. Fourteen publications reporting the outcomes of 526,008 patients were included. Reported readmission rates ranged from 10.9% to 30.0% with a mean of 16.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.1%-17.9%). Meta-analyses suggested the following risk factors had a significant association with readmission: female sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21), black race (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.28-1.46), dependent functional status (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.43-2.06), critical limb ischemia (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.72-2.62), emergency admission (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.43-2.15), hypertension (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.26-1.54), heart failure (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.50-2.20), chronic pulmonary disease (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.32), diabetes (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.32-1.63), chronic kidney disease (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.62-2.31), dialysis dependence (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.75-2.48), smoking (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.89), postoperative bleeding (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.23-2.35), and postoperative sepsis (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 2.02-8.47).


Approximately one in six patients undergoing revascularization for PAD are readmitted within 30 days of their procedure. This review identified multiple risk factors predisposing to readmission, which could potentially serve as a way to target interventions to reduce readmissions.

Item ID: 59874
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1097-6809
Keywords: Peripheral arterial disease; Patient readmission
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Copyright Information: © 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Queensland Government (QG)
Projects and Grants: NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship 1117061, QG Senior Clinical Research Fellowship, QG Advance Queensland Fellowship
Date Deposited: 28 Aug 2019 01:38
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3202 Clinical sciences > 320226 Surgery @ 50%
32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 40%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920118 Surgical Methods and Procedures @ 40%
92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920204 Evaluation of Health Outcomes @ 20%
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