Phylogenetic systematics, morphological evolution, and natural groups in neotropical Phlegmariurus (Lycopodiaceae)

Testo, Weston, Øllgaard, Benjamin, Field, Ashley, Almeida, Thaís, Kessler, Michael, and Barrington, David (2018) Phylogenetic systematics, morphological evolution, and natural groups in neotropical Phlegmariurus (Lycopodiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 125. pp. 1-13.

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Abstract

The Neotropical clade of the lycophyte genus Phlegmariurus is comprised of an estimated 150 described species and exhibits exceptional morphological and ecological diversity. Because of their simple morphology, frequent convergent evolution, and the recentness of the group’s diversification, the delimitation of species and species groups has remained challenging. Here, we present a robustly support phylogeny of Neotropical Phlegmariurus based on six chloroplast markers and ca. 70% of known species, and use ancestral character state reconstruction to investigate morphological evolution in the clade, and define natural species groups. The Neotropical species of Phlegmariurus form a clade that also includes a small number of Afro-Madagascan species. A morphologically and ecologically variable group of species from southeastern Brazil form a monophyletic group and represent a parallel radiation to principally Andean lineages. Species groups in Neotropical Phlegmariurus that were previously recognized based on morphology are not monophyletic. We find support for 11 morphologically cohesive and well-supported species groups. Morphological homoplasy is common in Phlegmariurus and complicates infrageneric classification of the Neotropical taxa. Our results provide a useful framework for identifying species groups and understanding patterns of morphological evolution in Neotropical Phlegmariurus. The radiation of the Brazilian species remains poorly understood and requires further study.

Item ID: 56802
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1095-9513
Keywords: clubmosses, lycophytes, morphology, neotropics, phylogenetics, synapomorphy
Copyright Information: © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserve
Date Deposited: 14 Jan 2019 23:44
FoR Codes: 05 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 0599 Other Environmental Sciences > 059999 Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960899 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity of Environments not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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