The effects of Toxic Early Childhood Experiences on depression according to Young Schema Model: a scoping review

Lim, Charmaine Ruling, and Barlas, Joanna (2019) The effects of Toxic Early Childhood Experiences on depression according to Young Schema Model: a scoping review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 246. pp. 1-13.

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Abstract

Background: Young Schema Model (YSM) emphasizes Toxic Early Childhood Experiences (TECE) as vulnerability factors to depression. However, the lack of consensus on how to define and measure TECE is likely to have led to inconsistent findings in current literature. This review maps supported and unsupported pathways to depression and measures used.

Methods: A scoping review was conducted in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute protocol to identify primary research studies that examined developmental and maintenance pathways to depression within the YSM framework. 2463 articles were identified with 49 primary research studies selected for inclusion. As a subset of the overall review, this paper focuses on the 14 studies that examined effects of TECE on depression in context of YSM.

Results: The studies used 11 different measures to examine the role of TECE in depression. Effects of maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect,) and perceived parenting (i.e., low care, high rejection, high overprotection and/or control, maladaptive parenting styles) on depression are well supported. Effects of sexual abuse and physical neglect on depression are currently inconclusive.

Conclusion: In conclusion, findings revealed the inconsistent definition and measurement of TECE (with 11 different measures) in current literature. Findings support the effects of physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, low care, high rejection, high overprotection and/or control, and maladaptive parenting styles on depression. Limitations of existing studies include researchers’ inconsistent definition and measurement of TECE, under-examined TECE sub-constructs, possible moderating relationships, predominant cross-sectional design, and homogeneous sampling. Limitations of the scoping review include its small number of studies and the absence of evaluation of the measures used. Nevertheless, this review represents the first step in the systematic examination of the empirical basis of YSM and is an important contribution to depression treatment and innovation.

Item ID: 56593
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1573-2517
Keywords: toxic early childhood experiences; parenting; abuse; depression; schema therapy; scoping review
Copyright Information: © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Date Deposited: 15 Jan 2019 23:09
FoR Codes: 17 PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES > 1701 Psychology > 170106 Health, Clinical and Counselling Psychology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920209 Mental Health Services @ 100%
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