Spatial-temporal heterogeneity in malaria receptivity is best estimated by vector biting rates in areas nearing elimination

Burkot, Thomas R., Bugoro, Hugo, Apairamo, Allan, Cooper, Robert D., Echeverry, Diego F., Odabasi, Danyal, Beebe, Nigel W., Makuru, Victoria, Xiao, Honglin, Davidson, Jenna R., Deason, Nicholas A., Reuben, Hedrick, Kazura, James W., Collins, Frank H., Lobo, Neil F., and Russell, Tanya L. (2018) Spatial-temporal heterogeneity in malaria receptivity is best estimated by vector biting rates in areas nearing elimination. Parasites and Vectors, 11. 606.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (2MB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Background: Decisions on when vector control can be withdrawn after malaria is eliminated depend on the receptivity or potential of an area to support vector populations. To guide malaria control and elimination programmes, the potential of biting rates, sporozoite rates, entomological inoculation rates and parity rates to estimate malaria receptivity and transmission were compared within and among geographically localised villages of active transmission in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands.

Results: Malaria transmission and transmission potential was heterogeneous in both time and space both among and within villages as defined by anopheline species composition and biting densities. Biting rates during the peak biting period (from 18:00 to 00:00 h) of the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, ranged from less than 0.3 bites per person per half night in low receptivity villages to 26 bites per person in highly receptive villages. Within villages, sites with high anopheline biting rates were significantly clustered. Sporozoite rates provided evidence for continued transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale by An. farauti and for incriminating An. hinesorum, as a minor vector, but were unreliable as indicators of transmission intensity.

Conclusions: In the low transmission area studied, sporozoite, entomological inoculation and parity rates could not be measured with the precision required to provide guidance to malaria programmes. Receptivity and potential transmission risk may be most reliably estimated by the vector biting rate. These results support the meaningful design of operational research programmes to ensure that resources are focused on providing information that can be utilised by malaria control programmes to best understand both transmission, transmission risk and receptivity across different areas.

Item ID: 56453
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1756-3305
Keywords: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, malaria, receptivity, elimination, Solomon Islands
Copyright Information: Copyright © The Author(s). 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Funders: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), National Institute of Health (NIH), USA, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID)
Projects and Grants: BMGF Grant No. 45114
Research Data:,
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2018 04:21
FoR Codes: 31 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 3103 Ecology > 310307 Population ecology @ 50%
42 HEALTH SCIENCES > 4203 Health services and systems > 420315 One health @ 50%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960405 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species at Regional or Larger Scales @ 20%
92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified @ 80%
Downloads: Total: 973
Last 12 Months: 65
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page