Membrane surface area to volume ratio in chronic subdural hematomas: critical size and potential postoperative target

Manickam, Appukutty, Marshman, Laurence A.G., and Johnston, Ross (2017) Membrane surface area to volume ratio in chronic subdural hematomas: critical size and potential postoperative target. World Neurosurgery, 100. pp. 256-260.

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Background: It is unknown why some chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) grow and require surgery, whereas others spontaneously resolve. Although a relatively small CSDH volume (V) reduction may induce resolution, V percent reduction is often unreliable in predicting resolution. Although CSDHs evolve distinctive inner neomembranes and outer neomembranes (OMs), the OM likely dominates the dynamic growth-resorption equilibrium. If other factors remain constant, one previous hypothesis is that resorption could fail as the surface area (SA) to V ratio decreases when CSDHs exceed a critical size. We aimed to identify a critical size and an ideal target, which implies resolution without recurrence.

Methods: Three-dimensional computed tomography CSDH SA to V ratios were obtained using computer software to compare CSDH SA to V between cases requiring surgery (surgical) and cases managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution (nonsurgical).

Results: Data were obtained in 45 patients (surgical: n = 28; nonsurgical: n = 17). CSDH risk factors did not significantly differ between surgical and nonsurgical cases. Surgical V was 2.5× the nonsurgical V (119.9 ± 33.1 mL vs. 48.4 ± 27.4 mL, respectively; P < 0.0001). Surgical total SA was 1.4× nonsurgical SA (256.63 ± 70.65 cm 2 vs. 187.67 ± 77.72 cm 2 , respectively; P = 0.004). Surgical total SA to V ratio was approximately one half that of nonsurgical SA to V ratio (2.14 ± 0.90 mL −1 vs. 3.88±1.22 mL −1 , respectively; P < 0.0001). Surgical OM SA (SA OM ) was 120.63 ± 52 cm 2 , and nonsurgical SA OM was 94.10 ± 41 cm 2 (P < 0.0001). Nonsurgical SA OM to V ratio was 1.94 mL −1 , whereas surgical SA OM to V ratio was 1.005 mL −1 (i.e., surgical SA OM ≈ V).

Conclusions: Because surgical total SA to V ratio was ≈2:1, one neomembrane may indeed dominate the dynamic growth-resorption equilibrium. CSDH critical size therefore appears to be when SA OM ≈ V, which is intuitive. Practically, subtotal CSDH evacuation which approximately doubles total SA to V ratio or SA OM to V ratio implies CSDH resolution without recurrence. This could guide subdural drain removal timing, discharge, or transfer. Prospective validation studies are required.

Item ID: 54038
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1878-8750
Keywords: membrane, subdural hematoma, surface area, volume
Additional Information:

Excerpts of this manuscript were presented at the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia Annual Scientific Meeting, October 4, 2013, Sunshine Coast, Australia

Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2018 00:14
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3202 Clinical sciences > 320226 Surgery @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920199 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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