National incidence of traumatic fractures in China: a retrospective survey of 512 187 individuals

Chen, Wei, Lv, Hongzhi, Liu, Song, Liu, Bo, Zhu, Yanbin, Chen, Xiao, Yang, Guang, Liu, Lei, Zhang, Tao, Wang, Haili, Yin, Bing, Guo, Jialiang, Zhang, Xiaolin, Li, Yichong, Smith, Derek, Hu, Pan, Sun, Jiayuan, and Zhang, Yingze (2017) National incidence of traumatic fractures in China: a retrospective survey of 512 187 individuals. The Lancet Global Health, 5 (8). e807-e817.

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Background: Traumatic fractures place a substantial burden on health-care systems worldwide. Although detailed information about incidence, distribution, and risk factors for traumatic fractures is vital for planning and prevention, in China, national data are unavailable. We aimed to do an up-to-date national survey on the population-weighted incidence of traumatic fractures in China. Methods The China National Fracture Study (CNFS) was a retrospective epidemiological study that recruited a nationally representative sample from eight provinces, 24 urban cities, and 24 rural counties in China using stratified random sampling and the probability proportional to size method. All eligible household members who had lived in their current residence for 6 months or longer were personally interviewed by trained research teams about traumatic fractures of the trunk, arms, or legs (not including the skull, sternum, and ribs) that had occurred in 2014. Telephone surveys were used for participants who were non-contactable after repeated visits. Fracture cases were verified by clinical records, medical history, and radiographs by orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists. We estimated incidence rates for traumatic fractures for the overall population and for subgroups by age and sex, as well as by demographic factors such as ethnic origin, occupation, geographical region, and residency category. We also studied potential associations between fractures and various factors of interest, such as age, ethnic origin, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, sleep time per day, and history of previous fracture. Data were weighted during statistical analysis to ascertain the national incidence rate. This study is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, number ChiCTR-EPR-15005878.

Findings: Between Jan 19, 2015, and May 16, 2015, 535 836 individuals were selected and invited to participate in the study. Questionnaires from 23 649 (4%) individuals were excluded due to missing items, insufficient responses, or logical errors. Following exclusions, 512 187 (96%) individuals participated in the CNFS, consisting of 259 649 (51%) boys and men and 252 538 (49%) girls and women. Of these individuals, 1763 individuals had experienced traumatic fractures during 2014 (n=1833). The population-weighted incidence rate of traumatic fractures of the trunk, arms, or legs was 3·21 (95% CI 2·83–3·59) per 1000 population in 2014 (3·65, 3·12–4·18 in men and 2·75, 2·46–3·04 in women). For all ages, sleeping less than 7 h per day was identified as a risk factor for traumatic fractures. We identified previous fracture history as a risk factor for adults aged 15 years and older. Alcohol consumption incurred a risk effect for men aged 15 years and older and women aged 15–64 years.

Interpretation: Our results provide detailed information about fracture incidence, distribution, and risk factors, which can now be used as an up-to-date clinical evidence base for national health-care planning and preventive efforts in China and elsewhere. Specific public health policies that focus on decreasing alcohol consumption, prohibiting drunk driving, promoting smoking cessation, and encouraging individuals to obtain sufficient sleep and maintain a healthy bodyweight should be urgently implemented to help reduce the risk of traumatic fractures. Funding The Hebei Province Medical Science Special Major Projects Research Fund.

Item ID: 53998
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2214-109X
Additional Information:

© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

Funders: Hebei Province Medical Science Special Major Projects Research Fund
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2018 00:00
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3202 Clinical sciences > 320216 Orthopaedics @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified @ 50%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920116 Skeletal System and Disorders (incl. Arthritis) @ 50%
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