Presentation and outcomes of indigenous Australians with peripheral artery disease

Singh, Tejas P., Moxon, Joseph, Healy, Genevieve N., Cadet-James, Yvonne, and Golledge, Jonathan (2018) Presentation and outcomes of indigenous Australians with peripheral artery disease. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 18 (94).

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (641kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:


Background: The risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) are more common in Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians, however the presentation and outcome of PAD in Indigenous Australians has not been previously investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to compare the presenting characteristics and clinical outcome of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians with PAD.

Methods: PAD patients were prospectively recruited and followed-up since 2003 from an outpatient vascular clinic in Townsville, Australia. Presenting symptoms and risk factors in Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients were compared using Pearson’s χ2 test and Mann Whitney U test. Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis were used to compare the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or death (major cardiovascular events) among Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients.

Results: Four hundred and one PAD patients were recruited, of which 16 were Indigenous and 385 were non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians were younger at entry (median age 63.3 [54.7–67.8] vs 69.6 [63.3–75.4]), more commonly current smokers (56.3% vs 31.4%), and more frequently had insulin-treated diabetes (18.8% vs 5.2%). During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, five and 45 major cardiovascular events were recorded amongst Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, respectively. Indigenous Australians were at ~ 5-fold greater risk of major cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 4.72 [95% confidence intervals 1.41–15.78], p = 0.012) compared to non-Indigenous Australians.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that Indigenous Australians with PAD present at a younger age, have higher rates of smoking and insulin-treated diabetes, and poorer clinical outcomes compared to non-Indigenous Australians.

Item ID: 53696
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1471-2261
Copyright Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Funders: Townsville Hopsital (TH)
Projects and Grants: TH SERTA grant 62701
Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2018 02:56
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3201 Cardiovascular medicine and haematology > 320101 Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 1157
Last 12 Months: 15
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page