Paediatric thoracic empyema in the tropical North Queensland region of Australia: epidemiological trends over a decade

Gautam, Anil, Wiseman, Gregory G., Goodman, Marika L., Ahmedpour, Simon, Lindsay, Daniel, Heyer, Adele, Stalewski, Harry, Norton, Robert E., and White, Andrew V. (2018) Paediatric thoracic empyema in the tropical North Queensland region of Australia: epidemiological trends over a decade. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 54 (7). pp. 735-740.

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Abstract

Aim: The Townsville Hospital and Health Service is the regional referral centre for children in the north of Queensland. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) people make up 7–10% of the population. Increasing numbers of children with paediatric thoracic empyema (pTE) are being referred to Townsville Hospital and Health Service for management. This study aims to describe the incidence rates, epidemiology, microbiology and trends of this disease in North Queensland over a 10-year period.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of all children (1 month to 16 years), admitted in the years 2007–2016, with community-acquired pTE was conducted. International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify the patients. Epidemiological and microbiological data were extracted from records.

Results: Of the 123 cases identified, incidence rates per 100 000 were 8.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.4–8.6) in all children and much higher at 19.8 (95% CI: 19.5–21.9) in ATSI children. The under 5 years age group had the highest rate (24.5; 95% CI: 24.4–24.6). There was a progressive rise in incidence during the 10-year period, with the highest incidence of 15.2 (95% CI: 15.1–15.2) occurring in 2016. A pathogen was isolated in 76% of cases. Non-multi-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen isolated in 22 of 64 ATSI children (34%), while Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen isolated in 27 of 59 non-ATSI children (46%).

Conclusions: A high and increasing incidence of pTE in North Queensland is being observed. ATSI children have higher incidence rates and are more likely to have non-multi-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a causative agent.

Item ID: 52544
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1440-1754
Keywords: children; epidemiology; infectious diseases; thoracic empyema
Date Deposited: 27 Feb 2018 01:36
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111706 Epidemiology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9205 Specific Population Health (excl. Indigenous Health) > 920501 Child Health @ 100%
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