Electro-physiological changes in the brain induced by caffeine or glucose nasal spray

De Pauw, K., Roelands, B., Van Cutsem, J., Marusic, U., Torbeyns, T., and Meeusen, R. (2017) Electro-physiological changes in the brain induced by caffeine or glucose nasal spray. Psychopharmacology, 234 (1). pp. 53-62.

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Objective: A direct link between the mouth cavity and the brain for glucose (GLUC) and caffeine (CAF) has been established. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct link for both substrates also exist between the nasal cavity and the brain.

Methods: Ten healthy male subjects (age 22 +/- 1 years) performed three experimental trials, separated by at least 2 days. Each trial included a 20-s nasal spray (NAS) period in which solutions placebo (PLAC), GLUC, or CAF were provided in a double-blind, randomized order. During each trial, four cognitive Stroop tasks were performed: two familiarization trials and one pre- and one post-NAS trial. Reaction times and accuracy for different stimuli (neutral, NEUTR; congruent, CON; incongruent INCON) were determined. Electroencephalography was continuously measured throughout the trials. During the Stroop tasks pre- and post-NAS, the P300 was assessed and during NAS, source localization was performed using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA).

Results and discussion: NAS activated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). CAF-NAS also increased theta and beta activity in frontal cortices. Furthermore, GLUC-NAS increased the beta activity within the insula. GLUC-NAS also increased the P300 amplitude with INCON (P = 0.046) and reduced P300 amplitude at F3-F4 and P300 latency at CP1-CP2-Cz with NEUTR (P = 0.001 and P = 0.016, respectively). The existence of nasal bitter and sweet taste receptors possibly induce these brain responses.

Conclusion: Greater cognitive efficiency was observed with GLUC-NAS. CAF-NAS activated cingulate, insular, and sensorymotor cortices, whereas GLUC-NAS activated sensory, cingulate, and insular cortices. However, no effect on the Stroop task was found.

Item ID: 50621
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1432-2072
Keywords: EEG, stroop, attention, ERP P300, source localization, sLORETA
Funders: Fund for Scientific Research Flanders (FWO)
Projects and Grants: FWO postdoctoral fellow
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2017 10:34
FoR Codes: 32 BIOMEDICAL AND CLINICAL SCIENCES > 3214 Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences > 321401 Basic pharmacology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970111 Expanding Knowledge in the Medical and Health Sciences @ 100%
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