Depression as a modifiable factor to decrease the risk of dementia

Almeida, O.P., Hankey, G.J., Yeap, B.B., Golledge, J., and Flicker, L. (2017) Depression as a modifiable factor to decrease the risk of dementia. Translational Psychiatry, 7. e1117.

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Abstract

Depression is an accepted risk factor for dementia, but it is unclear if this relationship is causal. This study investigated whether dementia associated with depression decreases with antidepressant use and is independent of the time between exposure to depression and the onset of dementia. We completed a 14-year longitudinal study of 4922 cognitively healthy men aged 71-89 years, and collected information about history of past depression, current depression and severity of depressive symptoms. Other measures included use of antidepressants, age, education, smoking and history of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke. The onset of dementia and death during follow-up was ascertained via the Western Australian Data Linkage System. A total of 682 men had past (n = 388) or current (n = 294) depression. During 8.9 years follow-up, 903 (18.3%) developed dementia and 1884 (38.3%) died free of dementia. The sub-hazard ratios (SHRs) of dementia for men with past and current depression were 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6) and 1.5 (95% CI = 1.2, 2.0). The use of antidepressants did not decrease this risk. Compared to men with no symptoms, the SHRs of dementia associated with questionable, mild-to-moderate and severe depressive symptoms were 1.2 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.4), 1.7 (95% CI = 1.4, 2.2) and 2.1 (95% CI = 1.4, 3.2), respectively. The association between depression and dementia was only apparent during the initial 5 years of follow-up. Older men with history of depression are at increased risk of developing dementia, but depression is more likely to be a marker of incipient dementia than a truly modifiable risk factor.

Item ID: 50316
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2158-3188
Additional Information:

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Projects and Grants: NHMRC 279408, NHMRC 379600, NHMRC 403963, NHMRC 513823, NHMRC 540403, NHMRC 540404, NHMRC 540405, NHMRC 634492, NHMRC 1021416, NHMRC 1045710, NHMRC 1060557
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2017 07:53
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1102 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology > 110201 Cardiology (incl Cardiovascular Diseases) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
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