Metofluthrin: investigations into the use of a volatile spatial pyrethroid in a global spread of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses

Buhagiar, Tamara S., Devine, Gregor J., and Ritchie, Scott A. (2017) Metofluthrin: investigations into the use of a volatile spatial pyrethroid in a global spread of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Parasites & Vectors, 10 (270). pp. 1-11.

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Abstract

Background: Metofluthrin reduces biting activity in Aedes aegypti through the confusion, knockdown, and subsequent kill of a mosquito. A geographical spread in dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, increases intervention demands. Response to a Zika outbreak may require a different strategy than dengue, as high-risk individuals, specifically pregnant women, need to be targeted.

Methods: In semi-field conditions within a residential property in Cairns, Queensland, the impacts of metofluthrin on biting behaviour of free-flying Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti were evaluated.

Results: Mortality in Ae. aegypti exposed to metofluthrin over a 22 h period was 100% compared to 2.7% in an untreated room. No biting activity was observed in mosquitoes up to 5 m from the emanator after 10 min of metofluthrin exposure. Use of metofluthrin reduced biting activity up to 8 m, regardless of the host's proximity (near or far) to a dark harbourage area (HA) (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.006), respectively. In the presence or absence of the metofluthrin emanator, the host was most likely bitten when located immediately next to a HA (within 1 m) versus 8 m away from the HA (P = 0.006). The addition of a ceiling fan (0.8 m/s airflow) prevented all biting activity after 10 min of metofluthrin exposure. Previously unexposed Ae. aegypti were less likely to reach the host in a metofluthrin-treated room (X−= 31%) compared to an untreated room (X−=100%) (P < 0.0001). In a treated room, if the mosquito had not reached the host within 30 s, they never would. Upon activation, the time required for metofluthrin to infiltrate protected locations within a room causing knockdown in caged mosquitoes, required more time than exposed locations (P < 0.003); however exposed and protected locations do eventually reach equilibrium, affecting mosquitoes equally throughout the room.

Conclusion: Metofluthrin is effective in interrupting indoor host-seeking in Ae. aegypti. Metofluthrin's efficacy is increased by centrally locating the emanator in the room, and by using a fan to increase airflow. Newly treated rooms may require a period of 2–4 h for sufficient distribution of the metofluthrin into protected locations where mosquitoes may be resting.

Item ID: 49054
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: Aedes aegypti, spatial repellents, metofluthrin, pyrethroids, mosquito control, dengue fever, zika virus, chikungunya
Additional Information:

© The Author(s). 2017. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

ISSN: 1756-3305
Funders: Deployed Warfighter (DW), National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
Projects and Grants: DW Deployment Grant #W911QY-15-1-0006, NHMRC Senior Research Fellowship 1044698
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2017 23:58
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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