The development of a kinematic model to quantify in-shoe foot motion

Bishop, Chris, Paul, Gunther, and Thewlis, Dominic (2012) The development of a kinematic model to quantify in-shoe foot motion. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 5 (Supplement 1). 43.

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Study aim: To develop a kinematic model to quantify in-shoe foot kinematics during gait.

Methods and material: Twenty-four participants (mean age - 21.8 yrs ± 3.5 yrs, height - 1.75 m ± 0.09 m and body mass - 71.0 kg ± 10.6 kg) were recruited. A marker set consisting of 20 x 10 mm markers was developed to track in-shoe joint kinematics [1]. Reliability and accuracy estimates of calibration marker placement on the shoe were determined. To track in-shoe foot motion, 12 mm diameter holes were punched in the shoe upper, with 25 mm marker wands mounted on theskinthroughtheshoe(Figure1). The marker set defined a four-segment kinematic model of the foot and ankle (shank, hindfoot, midfoot-forefoot complex and hallux). To define model parameters and moments of inertia, a CT scan was taken of 12 participant's feet. The reconstruction of 3-D bone geometries from two-dimensional grey scale images (DICOM format) was conducted in Simpleware software. Shoe-mounted marker offsets and moments of inertia were inputted to Visual3D. The kinematics of the shoe were described before and after modification to quantify post-modification shoe integrity. The model was deemed sensitive if it detected changes in joint kinematics between conditions that were both statistically significant and greater than the calculated Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) [2].

Results: The intra-rater (ICC = 0.68–0.99) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.75–0.98) of marker placement on the shoe ranged from moderate to excellent. The error of calibration marker placement on the shoe was < 5 mm compared to skin-mounted markers.

Conclusion: In conclusion, we present an accurate and reliable kinematic model to describe in-shoe foot kinematics during gait.

Item ID: 48208
Item Type: Article (Abstract)
ISSN: 1757-1146
Keywords: kinematic model, foot and shoe
Additional Information:

© 2012 Bishop et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Presented at: 3rd Congress of the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Community, 11-13 April 2012, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Date Deposited: 24 Aug 2017 02:23
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1106 Human Movement and Sports Science > 110601 Biomechanics @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920203 Diagnostic Methods @ 100%
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