Bluetongue: a historical and epidemiological perspective with the emphasis on South Africa

Coetzee, Peter, Stokstad, Maria, Venter, Estelle H., Myrmel, Mette, and Van Vuuren, Moritz (2012) Bluetongue: a historical and epidemiological perspective with the emphasis on South Africa. Virology Journal, 9. pp. 1-9.

[img]
Preview
PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (332kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-9-19...
 
30
11


Abstract

Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious, infectious, arthropod transmitted viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype member of the Orbivirus genus in the family Reoviridae. Bluetongue was first described in South Africa, where it has probably been endemic in wild ruminants since antiquity. Since its discovery BT has had a major impact on sheep breeders in the country and has therefore been a key focus of research at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute in Pretoria, South Africa. Several key discoveries were made at this Institute, including the demonstration that the aetiological agent of BT was a dsRNA virus that is transmitted by Culicoides midges and that multiple BTV serotypes circulate in nature. It is currently recognized that BT is endemic throughout most of South Africa and 22 of the 26 known serotypes have been detected in the region. Multiple serotypes circulate each vector season with the occurrence of different serotypes depending largely on herd-immunity. Indigenous sheep breeds, cattle and wild ruminants are frequently infected but rarely demonstrate clinical signs, whereas improved European sheep breeds are most susceptible. The immunization of susceptible sheep remains the most effective and practical control measure against BT. In order to protect sheep against multiple circulating serotypes, three pentavalent attenuated vaccines have been developed. Despite the proven efficacy of these vaccines in protecting sheep against the disease, several disadvantages are associated with their use in the field.

Item ID: 47825
Item Type: Article (Short Note)
Keywords: bluetongue virus, culicoides, serotype, survey, African carnivores, African herbivores, sheep, cattle, onderstepoort, South Africa, control, vaccine
ISSN: 1743-422X
Funders: Norwegian School of Veterinary Science (NVH)
Date Deposited: 15 Mar 2017 07:38
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070712 Veterinary Virology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970107 Expanding Knowledge in the Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 11
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page