Cholera in Oceania

Horwood, Paul F., and Greenhill, Andrew R. (2016) Cholera in Oceania. In: Loukas, Alex, (ed.) Neglected Tropical Diseases: Oceania. Neglected Tropical Diseases . Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 1-32.

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Abstract

For approximately 200 years, cholera has been feared globally as a disease that can cause rapid-onset epidemics. The causative organisms, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139serogroups, are endemic to Southern Asia, but appear to spread globally in waves resulting in seven recognised pandemics to date. The current seventh pandemic has seen the introduction of V. cholerae O1 El Tor into the Oceania region. Since 1962 there have been five large outbreaks at a frequency of approximately one per decade. There have also been regular small outbreaks and clusters of disease throughout the region during the seventh pandemic. The most recent outbreak of cholera in the region occurred in Papua New Guinea in 2009–2011, and this was the largest outbreak to occur in the region to date. In Oceania the majority of people live in high income settings (Australia and New Zealand) so the risk of cholera transmission is low. Despite this, an estimated 6.5 million people living in the region are at risk of cholera. The most important risk factors are inadequate access to safe water and lack of appropriate sanitation and hygiene measures. However, many other factors may contribute to cholera transmission risk, and people living in Pacific Island countries may be at increased risk in the future due to climate change. Strengthening health delivery services in the region will ensure countries are better equipped to handle future cholera outbreaks; and further understanding the epidemiology of cholera and the causative agent in the region could help prevent future transmission.

Item ID: 47394
Item Type: Book Chapter (Research - B1)
ISBN: 978-3-319-43148-2
ISSN: 2194-8283
Keywords: cholera; Vibrio cholerae; pandemic; waterborne; acute watery diarrhoea
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2017 04:12
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110309 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
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