Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009

Venter, Oscar, Sanderson, Eric W., Magrach, Ainhoa, Allan, James R., Beher, Jutta, Jones, Kendall R., Possingham, Hugh P., Laurance, William F., Wood, Peter, Fekete, Balázs M., Levy, Marc A., and Watson, James E.M. (2016) Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009. Scientific Data, 3. 160067. pp. 1-10.

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Remotely-sensed and bottom-up survey information were compiled on eight variables measuring the direct and indirect human pressures on the environment globally in 1993 and 2009. This represents not only the most current information of its type, but also the first temporally-consistent set of Human Footprint maps. Data on human pressures were acquired or developed for: 1) built environments, 2) population density, 3) electric infrastructure, 4) crop lands, 5) pasture lands, 6) roads, 7) railways, and 8) navigable waterways. Pressures were then overlaid to create the standardized Human Footprint maps for all non-Antarctic land areas. A validation analysis using scored pressures from 3114 × 1 km² random sample plots revealed strong agreement with the Human Footprint maps. We anticipate that the Human Footprint maps will find a range of uses as proxies for human disturbance of natural systems. The updated maps should provide an increased understanding of the human pressures that drive macro-ecological patterns, as well as for tracking environmental change and informing conservation science and application.

Item ID: 46015
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2052-4463
Keywords: agricultural features, terrestrial biomes, human footprint, railway, road, transport features
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© The Author(s) 2016. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit

Funders: Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), James Cook University (JCU), Australian Research Council (ARC)
Projects and Grants: ARC DP110102872, ARC DE140101624
Date Deposited: 10 Oct 2016 06:18
FoR Codes: 41 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES > 4104 Environmental management > 410401 Conservation and biodiversity @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960899 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity of Environments not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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