Occupational tuberculosis in health care workers in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Alele, Faith O., Franklin, Richard C., Leggat, Peter A., and Emeto, Theophilus I. (2016) Occupational tuberculosis in health care workers in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. In: Abstracts from the Townsville Health Research Week 2016, p. 30. From: Townsville Health Research Week 2016: Spotlight on Preventative Health, 12-15 September, 2016, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

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Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death globally. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in particular has a high burden of TB, which places health care workers (HCWs) at increased risk of occupational exposure to TB.

Aim: To describe the incidence, and prevalence of latent TB infection/disease in HCWs, and explore the effectiveness of infection control measures to protect HCWs in SSA. Method: A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was conducted using the databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Medline, up to March 2016. Thirteen studies were found reporting the prevalence, incidence of latent TB infection/TB disease among HCWs, and the effectiveness of infection control strategies in SSA.

Results: The median prevalence of latent TB infection (using a positive tuberculin skin test) in HCWS was 61% (range 45% to 84%). Markers of occupational exposure associated with latent TB infection among HCWS were longer duration of work, and exposure to TB patients. The median annual incidence of TB infection attributable to occupational exposure was 29% (range 19.3% to 38%) after accounting for the infection in the general population. The rate of active TB in HCWS was higher than in the general population. Administrative, personal and engineering control measures had no impact on the development of TB disease.

Conclusions: The risk of acquiring TB disease among HCWs in SSA was high and was associated with poor infection control measures. This may impact on the recruitment, longevity and retention of HCWs.

Item ID: 45973
Item Type: Conference Item (Abstract / Summary)
Date Deposited: 11 Oct 2016 01:51
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111705 Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920409 Injury Control @ 50%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 50%
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