DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not reduce BMI or body fat mass in children: follow-up of the DHA to optimize mother infant outcome randomized controlled trial

Muhlhausler, Beverly S., Yelland, Lisa N., McDermott, Robyn, Tapsell, Linda, McPhee, Andrew, Gibson, Robert A., and Makrides, Maria (2016) DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not reduce BMI or body fat mass in children: follow-up of the DHA to optimize mother infant outcome randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103 (6). pp. 1489-1496.

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Abstract

Background: The omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has proven effective at reducing fat storage in animal studies. However, a systematic review of human trials showed a lack of quality data to support or refute this hypothesis.

Objective: We sought to determine whether maternal DHA supplementation during the second half of pregnancy results in a lower body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat in children.

Design: We conducted a follow-up at 3 and 5 y of age of children who were born to mothers enrolled in the DOMInO (DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome) double-blind, randomized controlled trial, in which women with a singleton pregnancy were provided with DHA-rich fish-oil capsules (800 mg DHA/d) or vegetable-oil capsules (control group) in the second half of pregnancy. Primary outcomes were the BMI z score and pei-centage of body fat at 3 and 5 y of age. Potential interactions between prenatal DHA and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) genotype as a measure of the genetic predisposition to obesity were investigated.

Results: A total of 1614 children were eligible for the follow-up. Parent or caregiver consent was obtained for 1531 children (95%), and these children were included in the analysis. BMI z scores and percentages of body fat of children in the DHA group did not differ from those of children in the control group at either 3 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.03 (95% CI: -0.07, 0.13; P = 0.61); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: -0.26 (95% CI: -0.99, 0.46; P = 0.47)] or 5 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.02 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.12; P = 0.66); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: 0.11 (95% CI: -0.60, 0.82; P = 0.75)]. No treatment effects were modified by the PPAR gamma genotype of the child.

Conclusion: Independent of a genetic predisposition to obesity, maternal intake of DHA-rich fish oil during the second half of pregnancy does not affect the growth or body composition of children at 3 or 5 y of age. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org. au as ACTRN1260500056906 and ACTRN12611001127998.

Item ID: 45563
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: body composition, growth, maternal nutrition, omega-3, pregnancy
ISSN: 1938-3207
Date Deposited: 29 Jun 2016 07:32
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1111 Nutrition and Dietetics > 111104 Public Nutrition Intervention @ 34%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111701 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health @ 33%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111704 Community Child Health @ 33%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920204 Evaluation of Health Outcomes @ 100%
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