Fossil species in Boehmerieae (Urticaceae) in Dominican and Mexican amber: a new genus (Ekrixanthera) and two new species with anemophilous pollination by explosive pollen release, and possible lepidopteran herbivory

Poinar, George, Kevan, Peter G., and Jackes, Betsy R. (2016) Fossil species in Boehmerieae (Urticaceae) in Dominican and Mexican amber: a new genus (Ekrixanthera) and two new species with anemophilous pollination by explosive pollen release, and possible lepidopteran herbivory. Botany, 94 (8). pp. 599-606.

[img] PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

View at Publisher Website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2016-0006
 
1


Abstract

The first fossil flowers of Neotropical Urticaceae (Boehmerieae) are described from the Dominican Republic and Mexico as belonging to a new genus, Ekrixanthera. Ekrixanthera hispaniolae sp. nov. from Dominican amber has pentamerous staminate flowers on short pedicels with a pilose pistillode and heteromorphic pilose tepals: two are clavate and three linear. Ekrixanthera ehecatli sp. nov. has pentamerous staminate flowers lacking pedicels, a pistillode with greatly reduced pilosity, glabrous and heteromorphic tepals with two linear and three wedge-shaped with truncate tips. The presence or absence of a pedicel, heterotrophic condition of the tepals, and the presence or absence of pilosity of the pistillode and tepals separate the two species. Those characters, together with the pentamerous flowers separate both fossil species from extant genera. The floral structures indicate explosive pollen release and pollination by wind (anemophily). Pistillate flowers have not been found for this usually dioecious tribe. Lepidopteran herbivory is suggested by a damaged stipule in one specimen and a nymphalid butterfly (Vanessa-like) caterpillar that may have used Ekrixanthera as a food plant is illustrated. The fossils establish an early lineage of Boehmerieae with characteristic explosive pollen release and perhaps associated herbivorous insects in the West Indies and North America during the mid-Tertiary.

Item ID: 45190
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: palaeobotany, paleoecology, anemophily, Ekrixanthera hispaniolae, Ekrixanthera ehacatli
ISSN: 1916-2804
Funders: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
Date Deposited: 16 Aug 2016 02:17
FoR Codes: 21 HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY > 2199 Other History and Archaeology > 219999 History and Archaeology not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970121 Expanding Knowledge in History and Archaeology @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 1
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page