Efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisin-piperaquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries: meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

Naing, Cho, Racloz, Vanessa, Whittaker, Maxine Anne, Aung, Kyan, Reid, Simon Andrew, Mak, Joon Wah, and Tanner, Marcel (2013) Efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisin-piperaquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries: meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. PLoS ONE, 8 (12). e78819. pp. 1-9.

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to synthesize available evidence on the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) in treating uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in people living in endemic countries.

Methodology and Principal Findings: This is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT). We searched relevant studies in electronic databases up to May 2013. RCTs comparing efficacy of (DHP) with other artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), non-ACT or placebo were selected. The primary endpoint was efficacy expressed as PCR-corrected parasitological failure. Efficacy was pooled by hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI, if studies reported time-to-event outcomes by the Kaplan-Meier method or data available for calculation of HR Nine RCTs with 14 datasets were included in the quantitative analysis. Overall, most of the studies were of high quality. Only a few studies compared with the same antimalarial drugs and reported the outcomes of the same follow-up duration, which created some difficulties in pooling of outcome data. We found the superiority of DHP over chloroquine (CQ) (at day > 42-63, HR:2.33, 95% CI:1.86-2.93, I²: 0%) or artemether-lumefentrine (AL) (at day 42, HR:2.07, 95% CI:1.38-3.09, I²: 39%). On the basis of GRADE criteria, further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate.

Discussion/Conclusion: Findings document that DHP is more efficacious than CQ and AL in treating uncomplicated P. vivax malaria. The better safety profile of DHP and the once-daily dosage improves adherence, and its fixed co-formulation ensures that both drugs (dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine) are taken together. However, DHP is not active against the hypnozoite stage of P. vivax. DHP has the potential to become an alternative antimalarial drug for the treatment uncomplicated P. vivax malaria. This should be substantiated by future RCTs with other ACTs. Additional work is required to establish how best to combine this treatment with appropriate antirelapse therapy (primaquine or other drugs under development).

Item ID: 43859
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1932-6203
Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, antimalarials, drug therapy, meta-analysis, parasitic diseases, parasitology
Additional Information:

©2013 Naing et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Date Deposited: 12 Jul 2016 01:38
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110309 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
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