Developing disaster health preparedness in Australia

Aitken, Peter (2015) Developing disaster health preparedness in Australia. PhD thesis, James Cook University.

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Abstract

Disasters have always occu[r]ed and no civilization in history is immune from their effects. This thesis examines the major elements of health system preparedness for disaster response in Australia and the issues that impact on this. The thesis aim is to identify factors that can be targeted to improve preparedness for response.

A conceptual model is presented as the framework for the thesis, which incorporates the major variables involved. These are the type of disaster, which influences the nature of response; the scale of the disaster, which influences the size of the response; and the components of surge management – space, supplies, staff and system, which enable the response.

The thesis is presented in three parts, consistent with the conceptual model. The literature review (Chapter 2) outlines existing work and the current state of knowledge. Separate chapters (Chapter 3-5) for local, national and international response are mapped against examples of the main disaster types (natural; man-made; mixed). Chapter 6 then collates the findings to form conclusions and identify future directions. In all, 26 publications are submitted as the core of the thesis, comprised of two editorials, three monographs, one textbook chapter and 20 peer reviewed research papers. Novel sources of data are used, including the first published survey of the disaster preparedness of Australian Emergency Departments (ED), the first study looking at the impact of Pandemic H1N1 2009 on Australian EDs and the first survey of Australian health team members deployed internationally.

A number of recommendations are presented and mapped against models such as the surge management paradigm, the comprehensive approach to disaster management, Haddon's matrix and the Input, Throughput, Output model for ED care. Three of these are combined to form a novel integrated model that can be used as a tool to help understand, prepare for, and respond to disasters.

The thesis has multiple direct links to policy and practice, with a number of findings already translated into practice or used to inform system development. This has occurred across local, state, national and international preparedness. It is hoped that the findings of this thesis, and its associated outputs, will continue to help inform future emergency preparedness and contribute to further improvements in the care provided to the victims of disasters.

Item ID: 43767
Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Keywords: disaster preparedness; disasters; disaster response; disaster planning; disaster management; health system; surge management; emergencies; emergency management
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Additional Information:

Publications arising from this thesis are available from the Related URLs field. The publications are:

Chapter 2: Aitken, Peter, and Leggat, Peter (2012) Considerations in mass casualty and disaster management. In: Blaivas, Michael, (ed.) Emergency Medicine: an international perspective. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 143-182.

Chapter 2: Toloo, Sam, FitzGerald, Gerry, Aitken, Peter, Ting, Joseph, Tippett, Vivienne, & Chu, Kevin (2011) Emergency health services : demand and service delivery models. Monograph 1: literature review and activity trends. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD.

Chapter 2: FitzGerald, Gerard, Patrick, Jennifer R, Fielding, Elaine L, Shaban, Ramon Z., Arbon , Paul, Aitken, Peter, Considine, Julie, Clark, Michele J., Finucane, Julie, McCarthy, Sally M, Cloughessy, Liz, & Holzhauser, Kerri (2010) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Outbreak in Australia: Impact on Emergency Departments. QUT, Brisbane QLD Australia.

Chapter 3: Edwards, Nicholas A., Caldicott, David G.E., Aitken, Peter, Lee, Christine C., and Eliseo, Tony (2008) Terror Australis 2004: preparedness of Australian hospitals for disasters and incidents involving chemical, biological and radiological agents. Critical Care and Resuscitation, 10 (2). pp. 125-136.

Chapter 3: Fitzgerald, Gerry, Toloo, Sam, Rego, Joanna, Ting, Joseph, Aitken, Peter, and Tippett, Vivienne (2012) Demand for public hospital emergency department services in Australia: 2000–2001 to 2009–2010. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 24 (1). pp. 72-78.

Chapter 3: Bradt, David A., Aitken, Peter, FitzGerald, Gerry, Swift, Roger, O'Reilly, Gerard, and Bartley, Bruce (2009) Emergency department surge capacity: recommendations of the Australasian Surge Strategy Working Group. Academic Emergency Medicine, 16 (12). pp. 1350-1358.

Chapter 3: Rotheray, K.R., Aitken, P., Goggins, W.B., Rainer, T.H., and Graham, C.A. (2012) Epidemiology of injuries due to tropical cyclones in Hong Kong: a retrospective observational study. Injury, 43 (12). pp. 2055-2059.

Chapter 3: Little, Mark, Stone, Theona, Stone, Richard, Burns, Jan, Reeves, Jim, Cullen, Paul, Humble, Ian, Finn, Emmeline, Aitken, Peter, Elcock, Mark, and Gillard, Noel (2012) The evacuation of Cairns hospitals due to Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi. Academic Emergency Medicine, 19 (9). E1088-E1098.

Chapter 3: Wang, Xiao Yu, Barnett, Adrian Gerard, Yu, Weiwei, FitzGerald, Gerry, Tippett, Vivienne, Aitken, Peter, Neville, Gerard, McRae, David, Verrall, Ken, and Tong, Shilu (2012) The impact of heatwaves on mortality and emergency hospital admissions from non-external causes in Brisbane, Australia. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 69 (3). pp. 163-169.

Chapter 3: Vaneckova, P, Neville, G, Tippett, V, Aitken, Peter, Fitzgerald, Gerry, and Tong, Shilu (2011) Do biometeorological indices improve modeling outcomes of heat-related mortality? Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50 (6). pp. 1165-1176.

Chapter 3: FitzGerald, Gerard J., Aitken, Peter, Arbon, Paul, Archer, Frank, Cooper, David, Leggat, Peter, Myers, Colin, Robertson, Andrew, Tarrant, Michael, and Davis, Eleanor R. (2010) A National Framework for Disaster Health Education in Australia. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 25 (1). pp. 4-11.

Chapter 3: Bradt, David A., and Aitken, Peter (2010) Disaster medicine reporting: the need for new guidelines and the CONFIDE statement. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 22 (6). pp. 483-487.

Chapter 4: Leggat, Peter A., Speare, Richard, and Aitken, Peter (2009) Swine Flu and travelers: an Australian perspective. Journal of Travel Medicine, 16 (6). pp. 373-376.

Chapter 4: Brown, Lawrence H., Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter A., and Speare, Richard (2010) Self-reported anticipated compliance with physician advice to stay home during pandemic (H1N1) 2009: Results from the 2009 Queensland Social Survey. BMC Public Health, 10. pp. 1-6.

Chapter 4: Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter A., Brown, Lawrence H., and Speare, Richard (2010) Preparedness for short-term isolation among Queensland residents: implications for pandemic and disaster planning. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 22 (5). pp. 435-441.

Chapter 4: Considine, Julie, Shaban, Ramon Z., Patrick, Jennifer, Holzhauser, Kerri, Aitken, Peter, Clark, Michele, Fielding, Elaine, and FitzGerald, Gerry (2011) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza in Australia: absenteeism and redeployment of emergency medicine and nursing staff. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 23 (5). pp. 615-623.

Chapter 4: FitzGerald, Gerry, Aitken, Peter, Shaban, Ramon Z., Patrick, Jennifer, Arbon, Paul, McCarthy, Sally, Clark, Michele, Considine, Julie, Finucane, Julie, Holzhauser, Kerri, and Fielding, Elaine (2012) Pandemic (H1N1) Influenza 2009 and Australian emergency departments: implications for policy, practice and pandemic preparedness. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 24 (2). pp. 159-165.

Chapter 4: Seidl, Isaac A., Johnson, Andrew J., Mantel, Peta, and Aitken, Peter (2010) A strategy for real time improvement (RTI) in communication during the H1N1 emergency response. Australian Health Review, 34 (4).

Chapter 5: Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter, Robertson, Andrew, Harley, Hazel, Speare, Richard, and Le Clerq, Muriel (2009) Pre- and post-deployment health support provided to Australian disaster medical assistance team members: results of a national survey. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 7 (5). pp. 305-311.

Chapter 5: Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter, Robertson, Andrew, Harley, Hazel, Speare, Richard, and Leclerq, Muriel (2009) Health and safety aspects of deployment of Australian disaster medical assistance team members: results of a national survey. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 7 (5). pp. 284-290.

Chapter 5: Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter A., Robertson, Andrew G., Harley, Hazel, Speare, Richard, and Leclercq, Muriel G. (2011) Education and training of Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Team members: results of a national survey. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 26 (1). pp. 41-48.

Chapter 5: Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter, Robertson, Andrew G., Harley, Hazel, Speare, Richard, and Leclercq, Muriel (2012) Leadership and use of standards by Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 27 (2). pp. 142-147.

Chapter 5: Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter, Speare, Richard, and Leclercq, Muriel (2012) Logistic support provided to Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members. Emerging Health Threats Journal, 5. pp. 1-9.

Chapter 5: Aitken, Peter, Leggat, Peter, Harley, Hazel, Speare, Richard, and Leclercq, Muriel (2012) Human resources issues and Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members. Emerging Health Threats Journal, 5. pp. 1-7.

Date Deposited: 16 May 2016 23:24
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110305 Emergency Medicine @ 50%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111799 Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920407 Health Protection and/or Disaster Response @ 50%
92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920412 Preventive Medicine @ 50%
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