Effect of bolus viscosity on the safety and efficacy of swallowing and the kinematics of the swallow response in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia: white paper by the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD)

Newman, Roger, Vilardell, Natàlia, Clavé, Pere, and Speyer, Renée (2016) Effect of bolus viscosity on the safety and efficacy of swallowing and the kinematics of the swallow response in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia: white paper by the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD). Dysphagia, 31 (2). pp. 232-249.

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View at Publisher Website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00455-016-969...
 
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Abstract

Background: Fluid thickening is a well-established management strategy for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). However, the effects of thickening agents on the physiology of impaired swallow responses are not fully understood, and there is no agreement on the degree of bolus thickening.

Aim: To review the literature and to produce a white paper of the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD) describing the evidence in the literature on the effect that bolus modification has upon the physiology, efficacy and safety of swallowing in adults with OD.

Methods: A systematic search was performed using the electronic Pubmed and Embase databases. Articles in English available up to July 2015 were considered. The inclusion criteria swallowing studies on adults over 18 years of age; healthy people or patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia; bolus modification; effects of bolus modification on swallow safety (penetration/aspiration) and efficacy; and/or physiology and original articles written in English. The exclusion criteria consisted of oesophageal dysphagia and conference abstracts or presentations. The quality of the selected papers and the level of research evidence were assessed by standard quality assessments.

Results: At the end of the selection process, 33 articles were considered. The quality of all included studies was assessed using systematic, reproducible, and quantitative tools (Kmet and NHMRC) concluding that all the selected articles reached a valid level of evidence. The literature search gathered data from various sources, ranging from double-blind randomised control trials to systematic reviews focused on changes occurring in swallowing physiology caused by thickened fluids. Main results suggest that increasing bolus viscosity (a) results in increased safety of swallowing, (b) also results in increased amounts of oral and/or pharyngeal residue which may result in post-swallow airway invasion, (c) impacts the physiology with increased lingual pressure patterns, no major changes in impaired airway protection mechanisms, and controversial effects on oral and pharyngeal transit time, hyoid displacements, onset of UOS opening and bolus velocity—with several articles suggesting the therapeutic effect of thickeners is also due to intrinsic bolus properties, (d) reduces palatability of thickened fluids and (e) correlates with increased risk of dehydration and decreased quality of life although the severity of dysphagia may be an confounding factor.

Conclusions: The ESSD concludes that there is evidence for increasing viscosity to reduce the risk of airway invasion and that it is a valid management strategy for OD. However, new thickening agents should be developed to avoid the negative effects of increasing viscosity on residue, palatability, and treatment compliance. New randomised controlled trials should establish the optimal viscosity level for each phenotype of dysphagic patients and descriptors, terminology and viscosity measurements must be standardised. This white paper is the first step towards the development of a clinical guideline on bolus modification for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

Item ID: 43556
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1432-0460
Keywords: deglutition, deglutition disorders, review, viscosity, rheology, kinetics
Additional Information:

An erratum to this article was published in Dysphagia 31(5), pp 719 - 719. Correction to copyright and license terms. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Date Deposited: 12 Aug 2016 00:59
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110321 Rehabilitation and Therapy (excl Physiotherapy) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920201 Allied Health Therapies (excl. Mental Health Services) @ 100%
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