Is Plasmodium vivax a severe malaria?: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Naing, Cho, Whittaker, Maxine A., Wai, Victor Nyunt, and Mak, Joon Wah (2014) Is Plasmodium vivax a severe malaria?: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8 (8). e3071.

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Abstract

Background: Plasmodium vivax is one of the major species of malaria infecting humans. Although emphasis on P. falciparum is appropriate, the burden of vivax malaria should be given due attention. This study aimed to synthesize the evidence on severe malaria in P. vivax infection compared with that in P. falciparum infection.

Methods/Principal Findings: We searched relevant studies in electronic databases. The main outcomes required for inclusion in the review were mortality, severe malaria (SM) and severe anaemia (SA). The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Overall, 26 studies were included. The main meta-analysis was restricted to the high quality studies. Eight studies (n = 27490) compared the incidence of SM between P. vivax infection and P. falciparum mono-infection; a comparable incidence was found in infants (OR: 0.45, 95% CI:0.04-5.68, I2:98%), under 5 year age group (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 0.83-5.1, I2:83%), the 5-15 year-age group (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.31-1.16, I2:81%) and adults (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, I2:25%). Six studies reported the incidences of SA in P. vivax infection and P. falciparum mono-infection; a comparable incidence of SA was found among infants (OR: 3.47, 95%:0.64-18.94, I2: 92%), the 5-15 year-age group (OR:0.71, 95% CI: 0.06-8.57, I2:82%). This was significantly lower in adults (OR:0.75, 95% CI: 0.62-0.92, I2:0%). Five studies (n = 71079) compared the mortality rate between vivax malaria and falciparum malaria. A lower rate of mortality was found in infants with vivax malaria (OR:0.61, 95% CI:0.5-0.76, I2:0%), while this was comparable in the 5-15 year- age group (OR: 0.43, 95% CI:0.06-2.91, I2:84%) and the children of unspecified-age group (OR: 0.77, 95% CI:0.59-1.01, I2:0%).

Conclusion: Overall, the present analysis identified that the incidence of SM in patients infected with P. vivax was considerable, indicating that P. vivax is a major cause of SM. Awareness of the clinical manifestations of vivax malaria should prompt early detection. Subsequent treatment and monitoring of complications can be life-saving.

Item ID: 43453
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1935-2735
Keywords: malaria, P Vivax, systematic review
Additional Information:

© 2014 Naing et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Date Deposited: 24 Aug 2016 00:29
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1103 Clinical Sciences > 110309 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920109 Infectious Diseases @ 100%
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