Pathological effects of glyoxalase I inhibition in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

Kuhla, Björn, Lüth, Hans-Joachim, Haferburg, Dietrich, Weick, Michael, Reichenbach, Andreas, Arendt, Thomas, and Münch, Gerald (2006) Pathological effects of glyoxalase I inhibition in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 83 (8). pp. 1591-1600.

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In Alzheimer's disease (AD), in aging, and under conditions of oxidative stress, the levels of reactive carbonyl compounds continuously increase. Accumulating carbonyl levels might be caused by an impaired enzymatic detoxification system. The major dicarbonyl detoxifying system is the glyoxalase system, which removes methylglyoxal in order to minimize cellular impairment. Although a reduced activity of glyoxalase I was evident in aging brains, it is not known how raising the intracellular methylglyoxal level influences neuronal function and the phosphorylation pattern of tau protein, which is known to be abnormally hyperphosphorylated in AD. To simulate a reduced glyoxalase I activity, we applied an inhibitor of glyoxalase I, p-bromobenzylglutathione cyclopentyl diester (pBrBzGSCp2), to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to induce chronically elevated methylglyoxal concentrations. We have shown that 10 μM pBrBzGSCp2 leads to a fourfold elevation of the methylglyoxal level after 24 hr. In addition, glyoxalase I inhibition leads to reduced cell viability, strongly retracted neuritis, increase in [Ca2+]i, and activation of caspase-3. However, pBrBzGSCp2 did not lead to tau "hyper"-phosphorylation despite activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase but rather activated protein phosphatases 2 and induced tau dephosphorylation at the Ser202/Thr205 and Ser396/Ser404 epitopes. Preincubation with the carbonyl scavenger aminoguanidine prevented tau dephosphorylation, indicating the specific effect of methylglyoxal. Also, pretreatment with the inhibitor okadaic acid prevented tau dephosphorylation, indicating that methylglyoxal activates PP-2A. In summary, our data suggest that a reduced glyoxalase I activity mimics some changes associated with neurodegeneration, such as neurite retraction and apoptotic cell death.

Item ID: 4233
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1097-4547
Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; glyxoalase; methylglyoxal; oxidative stress; okadaic acid
Date Deposited: 23 Sep 2009 06:14
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology > 060104 Cell Metabolism @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920111 Nervous System and Disorders @ 100%
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