Detection of second-generation images using an assessment criteria method

Porter, Glenn, and Ebeyan, Robert (2015) Detection of second-generation images using an assessment criteria method. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy & Practice, 1 (4). 2. pp. 207-222.

[img] PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Restricted to Repository staff only

View at Publisher Website:


Purpose: The ability to distinguish between "original" and "copied" images has been a persistent forensic imaging difficulty and can be of some importance to certain criminal and civil investigations. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel assessment criteria method that incorporates visual and metadata-based information for the purpose of determining whether images are original or second-generation duplicates (copies made by rephotographing the original hardcopy).

Design/methodology/approach: The study reflects difficulties raised from forensic cases and is modelled on fraud investigation that involved images sourced from camera phones. The method involved a new assessment-based criteria approach and the results were evaluated through their application to a sample set of second-generation images.

Findings: The evaluation confirmed the validity of several theorised detection artefacts resulting in the articulation and presentation of 17 detection criteria considered useful for supporting image analysis.

Originality/value: The result of this study is an expansion of the tools available to examiners for addressing complex image authentication problems. The criteria approach also assists with transparently communicating the details of the photo interpretation processes for review and scrutiny.

Item ID: 41537
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 2056-3841
Keywords: assessment criteria, digital imaging, forensic photography, forensic science, photographic reproduction, second-generation images
Related URLs:
Additional Information:

This publication resulted from the following PhD thesis: Ebeyan, Robert (2017) Establishing critical conceptual and pragmatic principles for photointerpretation methodologies when applied as forensic evidence. PhD thesis, James Cook University, which is available Open Access in ResearchOnline@JCU. Please see the Related URLs for access.

Date Deposited: 07 Dec 2015 03:55
FoR Codes: 19 STUDIES IN CREATIVE ARTS AND WRITING > 1905 Visual Arts and Crafts > 190503 Lens-based Practice @ 100%
SEO Codes: 94 LAW, POLITICS AND COMMUNITY SERVICES > 9499 Other Law, Politics and Community Services > 949999 Law, Politics and Community Services not elsewhere classified @ 50%
94 LAW, POLITICS AND COMMUNITY SERVICES > 9404 Justice and the Law > 940404 Law Enforcement @ 50%
Downloads: Total: 9
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page