Percutaneous absorption of chemicals: developing an understanding for the treatment of disease in frogs

Llewelyn, V.K., Berger, L., and Glass, B.D. (2016) Percutaneous absorption of chemicals: developing an understanding for the treatment of disease in frogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 39 (2). pp. 109-121.

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The permeable nature of frog skin presents an alternative route for the delivery of therapeutic chemicals to treat disease in frogs. However, although therapeutic chemicals are often topically applied to the skin of frogs, their pharmacokinetics have rarely been reported. To provide evidence to guide both candidate drug and formulation selection, we highlight factors expected to influence percutaneous absorption through frog skin, including the anatomy and physiology of the skin and the physicochemical properties of applied therapeutic chemicals. Importantly, we also highlight the effects of the formulation on percutaneous absorption, especially the inclusion of potential penetration enhancers as excipients. Finally, we collate empirical data on the topical application of various therapeutic chemicals in postmetamorphic frogs and show that, in contrast to mammalian species, even large chemicals (i.e. >500 Da) and those with a wide range of log P values (−4 through +6) are likely to be absorbed percutaneously. Topical application in frogs thus promises a convenient and effective method for delivering systemic treatments of a diverse range of chemicals; however, further experimental quantification is required to ensure optimal outcomes.

Item ID: 41498
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1365-2885
Funders: Australian Research Council (ARC)
Projects and Grants: ARC FT10100375
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2015 01:50
FoR Codes: 30 AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND FOOD SCIENCES > 3009 Veterinary sciences > 300911 Veterinary pharmacology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 86 MANUFACTURING > 8609 Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products > 860903 Veterinary Pharmaceutical Treatments (e.g. Antibiotics) @ 20%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960499 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species not elsewhere classified @ 40%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960899 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity of Environments not elsewhere classified @ 40%
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