Evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a high prevalence Samoan Village

Hapairai, Limb K., Plichart, Catherine, Naseri, Take, Silva, Ualesi, Tesimale, Lameko, Pemita, Paulo, Bossin, Hervé C., Burkot, Thomas R., Ritchie, Scott A., Graves, Patricia M., Melrose, Wayne, and Joseph, Hayley (2015) Evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a high prevalence Samoan Village. Parasites & Vectors, 8. 287. pp. 1-9.

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Elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Samoa continues to be challenging despite multiple annual mass drug campaigns aimed at stopping transmission by reducing the prevalence and density of microfilaraemia. The persistence of transmission may be partly related to the highly efficient Aedes vectors. The assessment of pathogen transmission by mosquito vectors and of vector control relies on the ability to capture mosquitoes efficiently. The aims of this study are to compare trapping methods to capture LF-infected mosquitoes and determine the role in transmission of the species of Aedes mosquitoes in the area.


Fasitoo-Tai village was the chosen site because of persistent transmission despite annual mass drug administration. Sampling methods included BioGents Sentinel (BGS) trap, human-baited collections (HBC) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) trap. BGS and CDC traps were baited with BG-lure, CO2, and/or octenol. Individual trap locations were geo-located and efficiency of sampling methods was evaluated using a randomized Latin-square design in two locations. Number of mosquitoes collected (male and female), as well as species for each trapping method were determined. Additionally, Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. (Finlaya) spp. females were pooled by trap method and analysed for filarial DNA. Infection prevalence was estimated using the PoolScreen software.


The BGS trap with any type of bait collected more mosquitoes compared to both the CDC trap and the HBC. The BGS trap baited with BG-lure collected more mosquitoes than with CO2 and octenol. There were no significant differences between trapping methods in terms of proportions of infected females collected. The prevalence of filarial infection in Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. (Finlaya) spp. was estimated at 4.7% and 0.67% respectively.


This study supports the use of the BGS trap for research on and surveillance of the mosquito vectors of LF in Samoa. The BGS trap is a suitable and safer alternative to HBC for sampling Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. (Finlaya) spp., which continue to be the predominant vectors of LF. Of concern was the high prevalence of LF in mosquitoes despite a recent mass drug administration programme. This highlights the urgency for updated policies concerning filariasis elimination in Samoa.

Item ID: 40414
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1756-3305
Keywords: filariasis, transmission, Aedes, elimination, xenomonitoring, Samoa, BG-sentinel, mosquito trap, mosquito vector
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© 2015 Hapairai et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Date Deposited: 08 Sep 2015 23:39
FoR Codes: 06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0608 Zoology > 060808 Invertebrate Biology @ 30%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111711 Health Information Systems (incl Surveillance) @ 70%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920499 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified @ 100%
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