Clinical signs, pathology and dose-dependent survival of adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, inoculated orally with frog virus 3 Ranavirus sp., Iridoviridae

Forzán, María J., Jones, Kathleen M., Vanderstichel, Raphaël V., Wood, John, Kibenge, Frederick S.B., Kuiken, Thijs, Wirth, Wytamma, Ariel, Ellen, and Daoust, Pierre-Yves (2015) Clinical signs, pathology and dose-dependent survival of adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, inoculated orally with frog virus 3 Ranavirus sp., Iridoviridae. Journal of General Virology, 96 (5). pp. 1138-1149.

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Abstract

Amphibian populations suffer massive mortalities from infection with frog virus 3 FV3, genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae, a pathogen also involved in mortalities of fish and reptiles. Experimental oral infection with FV3 in captive-raised adult wood frogs, Rana sylvatica Lithobates sylvaticus, was performed as the first step in establishing a native North American animal model of ranaviral disease to study pathogenesis and host response. Oral dosing was successful LD50 was 102.93 2.423.44 p.f.u. for frogs averaging 35mm in length. Onset of clinical signs occurred 614days post-infection p.i. median 11 days p.i. and time to death was 1014 days p.i. median 12 days p.i.. Each tenfold increase in virus dose increased the odds of dying by 23-fold and accelerated onset of clinical signs and death by approximately 15. Ranavirus DNA was demonstrated in skin and liver of all frogs that died or were euthanized because of severe clinical signs. Shedding of virus occurred in faeces 710 days p.i. 34.5days before death and skin sheds 10 days p.i. 01.5days before death of some frogs dead from infection. Most common lesions were dermal erosion and haemorrhages haematopoietic necrosis in bone marrow, kidney, spleen and liver and necrosis in renal glomeruli, tongue, gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder mucosa. Presence of ranavirus in lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies probably viral were present in the bone marrow and the epithelia of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, renal tubules and urinary bladder. Our work describes a ranaviruswood frog model and provides estimates that can be incorporated into ranavirus disease ecology models.

Item ID: 40082
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
ISSN: 1465-2099
Funders: Alexander Graham Bell Graduate Scholarship-Doctoral, Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre
Date Deposited: 25 Aug 2015 03:55
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070712 Veterinary Virology @ 10%
07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070709 Veterinary Pathology @ 70%
07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070703 Veterinary Diagnosis and Diagnostics @ 20%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960404 Control of Animal Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species in Forest and Woodlands Environments @ 60%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960406 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species in Fresh, Ground and Surface Water Environments @ 40%
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