Obesity, albuminuria, and gamma-glutamyl transferase predict incidence of hypertension in indigenous Australians in rural and remote communities in northern Australia

Li, Ming, and McDermott, Robyn (2015) Obesity, albuminuria, and gamma-glutamyl transferase predict incidence of hypertension in indigenous Australians in rural and remote communities in northern Australia. Journal of Hypertension, 33 (4). pp. 704-710.

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Abstract

Objective: To describe the incidence of hypertension in a cohort of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.

Method: A follow-up study conducted among 1831 indigenous population aged 15 years and over without hypertension at baseline from 19 communities in North Queensland during 1997-2008. Main measurements included baseline and follow-up weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol), gamma-glutamyl transferase, urinary albumin creatinine ratio, self-reported tobacco smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity.

Results: Hundred cases of hypertension developed over 2633.4 person-years giving a crude incidence of hypertension of 22.6 (16.2-31.4) per 1000 person-years in females and 60.0 (47.1-76.6) per 1000 person-years for males. Age standardized overall incidence was 51.9 per 1000 person-years. Aboriginal participants were twice as likely as Torres Strait Islanders to develop hypertension, which increased with age. Obesity (BMI >30) strongly predicted incident hypertension independently of age or sex (adjusted hazard ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.9-4.8). Albuminuria and elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase increased the risk of hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio 1.4-1.7) in this population.

Conclusion: Incidence of hypertension in indigenous Australian adults is nearly double than that of the general Australian population. High background prevalence of obesity, diabetes and albuminuria contributes to this excess. As well as early detection and management of high blood pressure, albuminuria and diabetes in primary care settings, attention should be equally focused on community-level prevention and management of obesity.

Item ID: 39362
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1473-5598
Keywords: albuminuria, Australian indigenous population, gamma-glutamyl transferase, incidence of hypertension, overweight and obesity
Additional Information:

Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government
Projects and Grants: NHMRC 279402
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2015 01:13
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111701 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health @ 50%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111706 Epidemiology @ 50%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9203 Indigenous Health > 920302 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health - Health Status and Outcomes @ 50%
92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 50%
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