Prevalence, associated factors, mood and cognitive outcomes of traumatic brain injury in later life: the health in men study (HIMS)

Almeida, Osvaldo P., Hankey, Graeme J., Yeap, Bu B., Golledge, Jonathan, and Flicker, Leon (2015) Prevalence, associated factors, mood and cognitive outcomes of traumatic brain injury in later life: the health in men study (HIMS). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 30. pp. 1215-1223.

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Background: The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is rising, as are its neuropsychiatric complications. This study aims to determine (1) the prevalence of TBI, (2) the association between history of past TBI and sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors, and (3) the risk of depression and cognitive impairment in later life associated with exposure to TBI.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of a community-derived sample of 5486 Australian men aged 70-89 years. Information on TBI was retrieved from the Western Australian Data Linkage System (WADLS) and via self-report. We used the WADLS and self-report to ascertain history of past depression, and the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-items to assess current clinically significant symptoms of depression, defined by score ≥7. We defined cognitive impairment by a mini-mental state examination score <24 or a WADLS diagnosis of dementia.

Results: Nine hundred fifty-three men had history of TBI (17.4%). Factors associated with TBI included coronary heart disease, stroke, poor self-perceived physical health and falls. TBI increased the odds ratio of past (odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21, 1.99) and current depression (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), as well as of cognitive impairment (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.51). The population fractions of depression and cognitive impairment attributable to TBI were 6.9% (95% CI = 3.3%, 10.3%) and 3.4% (95% CI = 0.0%, 6.9%).

Conclusions: History of TBI is common in older men, and is associated with increased risk of depression and cognitive impairment. If this association is truly causal, then the effective reduction of events leading to TBI (e.g., motor vehicle accidents and falls) may also decrease the prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment in later life.

Item ID: 39224
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1099-1166
Keywords: cognitive impairment; dementia; depression; epidemiology; prevalence; traumatic brain injury
Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC)
Projects and Grants: NHMRC grant 279408, NHMRC grant 379600, NHMRC grant 403963, NHMRC grant 513823, NHMRC grant 540403, NHMRC grant 540404, NHMRC grant 540405, NHMRC grant 634492, NHMRC grant 1021416, NHMRC grant 1045710, NHMRC grant 1060557
Date Deposited: 18 Jun 2015 03:51
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1102 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology > 110201 Cardiology (incl Cardiovascular Diseases) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
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