Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover

Plowright, Raina K., Eby, Peggy, Hudson, Peter J., Smith, Ina L., Westcott, David, Bryden, Wayne L., Middleton, Deborah, Reid, Peter A., McFarlane, Rosemary A., Martin, Gerardo, Tabor, Gary M., Skerratt, Lee F., Anderson, Dale L., Crameri, Gary, Quammen, David, Jordan, David, Freeman, Paul, Wang, Lin-Fa, Epstein, Jonathan H., Marsh, Glenn A., Kung, Nina Y., and McCallum, Hamish (2014) Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: biological sciences, 282 (1798). pp. 1-9.

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View at Publisher Website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.2124
 
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Abstract

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility.

Item ID: 38781
Item Type: Article (Refereed Research - C1)
Keywords: emerging infectious diseases of bat origin, Hendra virus in flying-foxes, Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus
ISSN: 1471-2954
Funders: Commonwealth of Australia (CA), State of New South Wales (NSW), State of Queensland (Q), Cedar Tree Foundation (CTF), Morris Animal Foundation (MAF), Linnaues Estate (LE), Science and Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security (STDDHS), Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health (FICNIH)
Projects and Grants: CA/NSW/Q National Hendra Virus Research Program, awarded through the Rural Industries Research Development Corporation
Date Deposited: 12 Sep 2016 23:18
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070704 Veterinary Epidemiology @ 100%
SEO Codes: 96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960405 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species at Regional or Larger Scales @ 100%
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