Adenosine, lidocaine and Mg^2+ improves cardiac and pulmonary function, induces reversible hypotension and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an endotoxemic porcine model

Granfeldt, Asger, Letson, Hayley L., Dobson, Geoffrey P., Shi , Wei, Vinten-Johansen, Jakob, and Tønnesen, Else (2014) Adenosine, lidocaine and Mg^2+ improves cardiac and pulmonary function, induces reversible hypotension and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an endotoxemic porcine model. Critical Care Medicine, 18 (6). 682. pp. 1-19.

PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website:



The combination of Adenosine (A), lidocaine (L) and Mg^2+ (M) (ALM) has demonstrated cardioprotective and resuscitative properties in models of cardiac arrest and hemorrhagic shock. This study evaluates whether ALM also demonstrates organ protective properties in an endotoxemic porcine model.


Pigs (37 to 42 kg) were randomized into: 1) Control (n = 8) or 2) ALM (n = 8) followed by lipopolysaccharide infusion (1 μg∙kg^-1∙h^-1) for five hours. ALM treatment consisted of 1) a high dose bolus (A (0.82 mg/kg), L (1.76 mg/kg), M (0.92 mg/kg)), 2) one hour continuous infusion (A (300 μg∙kg^-1 ∙min^-1), L (600 μg∙kg^-1 ∙min^-1), M (336 μg∙kg^-1 ∙min^-1)) and three hours at a lower dose (A (240∙kg^-1∙min^-1), L (480 μg∙kg^-1∙min^-1), M (268 μg∙kg^-1 ∙min^-1)); controls received normal saline. Hemodynamic, cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic and renal functions were evaluated.


ALM lowered mean arterial pressure (Mean value during infusion period: ALM: 47 (95% confidence interval (CI): 44 to 50) mmHg versus control: 79 (95% CI: 75 to 85) mmHg, P <0.0001). After cessation of ALM, mean arterial pressure immediately increased (end of study: ALM: 88 (95% CI: 81 to 96) mmHg versus control: 86 (95% CI: 79 to 94) mmHg, P = 0.72). Whole body oxygen consumption was significantly reduced during ALM infusion (ALM: 205 (95% CI: 192 to 217) ml oxygen/min versus control: 231 (95% CI: 219 to 243) ml oxygen/min, P = 0.016). ALM treatment reduced pulmonary injury evaluated by PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio (ALM: 388 (95% CI: 349 to 427) versus control: 260 (95% CI: 221 to 299), P = 0.0005). ALM infusion led to an increase in heart rate while preserving preload recruitable stroke work. Creatinine clearance was significantly lower during ALM infusion but reversed after cessation of infusion. ALM reduced tumor necrosis factor-α peak levels (ALM 7121 (95% CI: 5069 to 10004) pg/ml versus control 11596 (95% CI: 9083 to 14805) pg/ml, P = 0.02).


ALM infusion induces a reversible hypotensive and hypometabolic state, attenuates tumor necrosis factor-α levels and improves cardiac and pulmonary function, and led to a transient drop in renal function that was reversed after the treatment was stopped.

Item ID: 38533
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1530-0293
Additional Information:

© 2014 Granfeldt et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Funders: Augustinus Foundation of Denmark, Health Research Fund of Denmark
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2015 00:02
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1102 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology > 110299 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 699
Last 12 Months: 62
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page