Association of impaired fasting glucose, diabetes and their management with the presentation and outcome of peripheral artery disease: a cohort study

Golledge, Jonathan, Quigley, Frank, Velu, Ramesh, Walker, Phillip J., and Moxon, Joseph V. (2014) Association of impaired fasting glucose, diabetes and their management with the presentation and outcome of peripheral artery disease: a cohort study. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 13. 147. pp. 1-9.

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Background: Pre-diabetes and untreated diabetes are common in patients with peripheral artery disease however their impact on outcome has not been evaluated. We examined the association of impaired fasting glucose, diabetes and their treatment with the presentation, mortality and requirement for intervention in peripheral artery disease patients.

Methods: We prospectively recruited 1637 patients with peripheral artery disease, measured fasting glucose, recorded medications for diabetes and categorised them by diabetes status. Patients were followed for a median of 1.7 years.

Results: At entry 22.7% patients were receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes by oral hypoglycaemics alone (18.1%) or insulin (4.6%). 9.2% patients had non-medicated diabetes. 28.1% of patients had impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mM). Patients with non-medicated diabetes had increased mortality and requirement for peripheral artery intervention (hazards ratio 1.62 and 1.31 respectively). Patients with diabetes prescribed insulin had increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.97). Patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes prescribed oral hypoglycaemics only had similar outcomes to patients with no diabetes.

Conclusions: Non-medicated diabetes is common in peripheral artery disease patients and associated with poor outcomes. Impaired fasting glucose is also common but does not increase intermediate term complications. Peripheral artery disease patients with diabetes requiring insulin are at high risk of intermediate term mortality.

Item ID: 36259
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1475-2840
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© 2014 Golledge et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Funders: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC), Townsville Hospital Private Practice Trust Fund, Queensland Government
Projects and Grants: NHMRC 1020955, NHMRC 1022752, NHMRC 1000967, NHMRC 1019921
Date Deposited: 27 Nov 2014 03:59
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1102 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology > 110201 Cardiology (incl Cardiovascular Diseases) @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
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