Pulmonary function after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in a porcine model

Nielsen, T.K., Hvas, C.L., Dobson, G.P., Tønnesen, E., and Granfeldt, A. (2014) Pulmonary function after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in a porcine model. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 58 (8). pp. 1015-1024.

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Hemorrhagic shock may trigger an inflammatory response and acute lung injury. The combination adenosine, lidocaine (AL) plus Mg^2+ (ALM) has organ-protective and anti-inflammatory properties with potential benefits in resuscitation.The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) pulmonary function and inflammation after hemorrhagic shock; (2) the effects of ALM/AL on pulmonary function and inflammation.


Pigs (38 kg) were randomized to: sham + saline (n = 5); sham + ALM/AL (n = 5); hemorrhage control (n = 11); and hemorrhage + ALM/AL (n = 9). Hemorrhage animals bled to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg for 90 min, received resuscitation with Ringer's acetate and 20 ml of 7.5% NaCl with ALM to a minimum MAP of 50 mmHg, after 30 min shed blood and 0.9% NaCl with AL were infused. Hemorrhage controls did not receive ALM/AL. Primary endpoints were pulmonary wet/dry ratio, PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio (partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen), cytokine and protein measurements in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue, neutrophil invasion and blood flow in lung tissue.


In the hemorrhage groups, wet/dry ratio increased significantly compared with the sham groups. PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio decreased during shock but normalized after resuscitation. BALF did not indicate significant pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress or increased permeability. Intervention with ALM caused a temporary increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and reduced urea diffusion across the alveolar epithelia, but had no effect on wet/dry ratio.


Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation did not cause acute lung injury or pulmonary inflammation. The question whether ALM/AL has the potential to attenuate acute lung injury is unanswered.

Item ID: 36130
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1399-6576
Funders: Tryg Foundation, Læge Sofus Carl Emil Friis og Hustru Olga Doris Friis' Foundation, Aase and Ejner Danielsens Foundation, Holger and Ruth Hesses Foundation, Danish Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine Foundation, A. P. Moeller Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Science, Danish Medical Association Research Fund, The Søren Segels & Johanne Wiibroe Segels Fund, Helga and Peter Kornings Foundation, Health Research Fund of Central Denmark Region
Date Deposited: 12 Nov 2014 11:50
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1102 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology > 110299 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology not elsewhere classified @ 100%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%
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