Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria

Noland, Gregory S., Graves, Patricia, Sallau, Adamu, Eigege, Abel, Emukah, Emmanuel, Patterson, Amy E., Ajiji, Joseph, Okorofor, Iheanyichi, Oji, Oji Uka, Umar, Mary, Alphonsus, Kal, Damen, James, Ngondi, Jeremiah, Ozaki, Masayo, Cromwell, Elizabeth, Obiezu, Josephine, Eneiramo, Solomon, Okoro, Chinyere, McClintic-Doyle, Renn, Oresanya, Olusola, Miri, Emmanuel, Emerson, Paul M., and Richards, Frank O. (2014) Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria. BMC Infectious Diseases, 14. 168.

[img]
Preview
PDF (Published Version) - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (785kB) | Preview
View at Publisher Website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-14-1...
 
14
91


Abstract

Background: Nigeria suffers the world's largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country's aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs).

Methods: Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization.

Results: Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau.

Conclusions: These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden.

Item ID: 35769
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1471-2334
Keywords: malaria, plasmodium, falciparum, malariae, anemia, net use, net ownership, Nigeria, LLIN, bed net
Additional Information:

Copyright © 2014 Noland et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Funders: Carter Center
Date Deposited: 15 Oct 2014 16:45
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111706 Epidemiology @ 40%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1117 Public Health and Health Services > 111711 Health Information Systems (incl Surveillance) @ 30%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1108 Medical Microbiology > 110803 Medical Parasitology @ 30%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9204 Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) > 920404 Disease Distribution and Transmission (incl. Surveillance and Response) @ 70%
92 HEALTH > 9202 Health and Support Services > 920208 Health Inequalities @ 30%
Downloads: Total: 91
Last 12 Months: 27
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page