Oxytocin and addiction: a review

Kovács, Gábor, Sarnyai, Zoltán, and Szabó, Gyula (1998) Oxytocin and addiction: a review. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23 (8). pp. 945-962.

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Abstract

Neuropeptides affect adaptive central nervous system processes related to opiate ethanol and cocaine addiction. Oxytocin (OXT), a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide synthesized in the brain and released at the posterior pituitary, also is released in the central nervous system (CNS). OXT acts within the CNS and has been shown to inhibit the development of tolerance to morphine, and to attenuate various symptoms of morphine withdrawal in mice. In rats, intravenous self-administration of heroin was potently decreased by OXT treatment. In relation to cocaine abuse, OXT dose-dependently decreased cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotyped grooming behavior. Following chronic cocaine treatment, the behavioral tolerance to the sniffing-inducing effect of cocaine was markedly inhibited by OXT. Behavioral sensitization to cocaine, on the other hand, was facilitated by OXT. OXT receptors in the CNS—mainly those located in limbic and basal forebrain structures—are responsible for mediating various effects of OXT in the opiate- and cocaine-addicted organism. Dopaminergic neurotransmission—primarily in basal forebrain structures—is another important biochemical mediator of the central nervous system effects of OXT. Tolerance to ethanol (e.g. hypothermia-inducing effect of ethanol) also was inhibited by OXT.

Item ID: 35113
Item Type: Article (Research - C1)
ISSN: 1873-3360
Keywords: neuropeptides; oxytocin; opiate; cocaine; ethanol; rapid tolerance; addiction; withdrawal
Date Deposited: 29 Aug 2014 00:33
FoR Codes: 11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1109 Neurosciences > 110903 Central Nervous System @ 80%
11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences > 111501 Basic Pharmacology @ 20%
SEO Codes: 92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920111 Nervous System and Disorders @ 100%
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