Optimising the use of Gliricidia, Calliandra leaf and Kenaf seed protein in ruminant feeding

Machanja, Juliet Uside (2007) Optimising the use of Gliricidia, Calliandra leaf and Kenaf seed protein in ruminant feeding. Masters (Research) thesis, James Cook University.

[img]
Preview
PDF (Thesis) - Submitted Version
Download (1MB) | Preview
 
223


Abstract

A major constraint to ruminant animal production in the tropics and sub-tropics is the inadequate supply of good quality feeds particularly during the dry season. During such a time, only fibrous crop residues such as maize stover, wheat and rice straws, or low quality grass or hay (H) may be available. These feedstuffs are invariably low in nitrogen (N) and are unable to support normal microbial activity in the rumen. Research in the recent past therefore had focused much attention on the nutritional potentials of shrub plants since these generally are more tolerant to drier conditions and a number, particularly the legumes, have a high N content. In the current study, the leaves of two shrub legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Calliandra calothyrsus, and the seeds of a non-leguminous shrub plant, Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), were examined for their nutritional potential as supplements to H in ruminant animal feeding.

Of the seven experiments undertaken, three involved the evaluation of Gliricidia leaves, two of Calliandra leaves, one of a mixture of Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves and one of Kenaf seeds. Except for the number of animals used and dietary treatments examined, the materials and methods employed across the seven experiments were the same. The experimental animals were kept in metabolism cages where the feed and water intake and faeces and urine excreted were recorded daily. Samples of feedstuffs offered to the animals, feedstuffs refused by the animals, faeces, urine, rumen fluid and blood were taken and analysed where relevant, for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), urea, ammonia, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and glucose.

Four even groups of a total of 16 wethers were each allocated at random the following four dietary treatments: basal low quality hay (H) fed with fresh Gliricidia leaves either simultaneously or at two hours or at six hours or at 12 hours after H was fed. Experiment 1 was undertaken to examine the effect of time of offering Gliricidia leaves supplement to H after H was fed to sheep, on feed DM digestibility and N utilisation. Sheep fed the legume supplement simultaneously with or at 12 hours after the H was fed had lower DM digestibility (54%) and N balance compared to those fed the supplement at two or six hours after H was fed.

It was concluded that to better match the ammonia supplied from the Gliricidia supplement with the SCFA produced from the H for microbial synthesis in the rumen, the legume supplement should be offered two to six hours after the H has been fed.

Experiment 3 was undertaken to examine the effect of time of offering the Gliricidia leaves supplement to H after H was fed to sheep, on voluntary feed DM intake. Three even groups of a total of 15 wethers were each allocated at random the following three dietary treatments: H fed with fresh Gliricidia leaves either simultaneously or at two hours or at six hours after H was fed.

No increase in DM intake was observed across the dietary treatments. It was concluded that manipulating the time of feeding of the Gliricidia supplement would not significantly increase the DM intake of a diet based on H.

Experiment 5 was undertaken to examine the effect of time of offering fresh Gliricidia leaves supplement to H either simultaneously or at four hours after H was fed to sheep. Three even groups of a total of 18 wethers were each allocated at random the following three dietary treatments: fed H only; H fed with fresh Gliricidia leaves either simultaneously or at four hours after H was fed. Compared to feeding of the supplement simultaneously with H, feeding the supplement at four hours after H was fed improved DM digestibility by 23%. The molar ratio of ammonia : SCFA was lower at 0.14 and the percentage of N retained (12%) was higher in the latter feeding regimen. It was concluded that offering the Gliricidia leaves supplement to H at four hours after H was fed to sheep would result in the best outcome in terms of dietary DM digestibility and N utilisation.

Experiment 2 was undertaken to examine the effect of time of offering the Calliandra leaves supplement to H after H was fed to sheep, on DM digestibility and N utilisation. Two even groups of a total of 12 wethers were each allocated at random the following two dietary treatments: H fed simultaneously with fresh Calliandra leaves and H + Calliandra leaves fed at two hours after H was fed.

The animals fed the supplement simultaneously with H excreted more N through faeces (76 % vs 72 %) and retained less N (- 4 % vs 12 % of total N intake).

It was concluded that offering the Calliandra leaves supplement to H at two hours after H was fed to sheep would significantly improve DM digestibility and N utilisation of the diet.

Experiment 6 was undertaken to examine the effect of drying on the utilisation of Calliandra-supplemented diets. Three even groups of a total of 15 wethers were each allocated at random the following three dietary treatments: fed H only, H fed simultaneously with either fresh Calliandra leaves or dried Calliandra leaves.

The N retained was higher in sheep fed the dried legume leaves than in those fed fresh leaves (42 % vs 27 %). The amount of N excreted through faeces was lower in animals fed the dried leaves (41 % vs 49 % of N intake).

It was concluded that drying Calliandra leaves, while it may not improve the digestibility of the diet when included as a supplement, would improve N retention by the animals.

Experiment 4 was undertaken to examine the effect of a mixture of Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves as a supplement to H. Three even groups of a total of 15 wethers were each allocated at random the following dietary treatments: H fed with a mix of fresh Gliricidia:Calliandra (1:1) leaves either simultaneously or at two hours or at six hours after H was fed.

Improvement in N retention (51 % of total N intake) across the dietary treatments was observed. DM digestibility was relatively high (68 %) in all sheep on the different dietary treatments.

It was concluded that the best use of Gliricidia and Calliandra as supplements to H would be to use the two legumes combined as a supplement.

Experiment 7 was undertaken to examine the effect of Kenaf seed supplement to H after H was fed to sheep on feed DM digestibility and N utilisation. Four even groups of a total of 24 wethers were each allocated at random the following dietary treatments: H; H + fresh Gliricidia leaves fed at four hours after H was fed; H + fresh Gliricidia leaves + milled Kenaf seeds fed simultaneously; and H + milled Kenaf seeds.

The DM digestibility of H + milled Kenaf seeds diet was similar to that of the H diet (50 %). Although the DM digestibility values for the diet containing fresh Gliricidia leaves were slightly higher at 52 – 53 %, the highest N retention (13 % of N intake) was observed in sheep fed the H + milled Kenaf seeds.

It was concluded that Kenaf seeds may be used as a supplement to H to improve N retention in animals.

Item ID: 34862
Item Type: Thesis (Masters (Research))
Keywords: animal feed; animal nutrition; Calliandra; feeding; fodder; Gliricidia; hay; Kenaf seeds; livestock; Ruminantia; ruminants; sheep
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2014 02:04
FoR Codes: 07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0702 Animal Production > 070204 Animal Nutrition @ 100%
SEO Codes: 83 ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND ANIMAL PRIMARY PRODUCTS > 8303 Livestock Raising > 830399 Livestock Raising not elsewhere classified @ 100%
Downloads: Total: 223
Last 12 Months: 11
More Statistics

Actions (Repository Staff Only)

Item Control Page Item Control Page